Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Detailed analysis of school safety

Safety is an important factor in any learning institution that is focussed to achieving its mission, vision and goals in the future. So the most important thing to be enforced in such institutions is thus safety. Although there are other factors that contribute to the success of students in learning, safety form the core foundations for all activities that are undertaken by any learning institutions. The need to provide better learning environment to students begins with the provision of physical safety that leading to the provisions of emotional well being to the students. Atkinson, 1996) However, in the recent past years, many schools within the country have been faced with a number of problems which led to the compromising of schools safety. During last year’s perilous event that took place in our school, many of us as part of the school community were affected. Follow such consequences, the school administration formed a committee to research on the safety conditions and control measures in our school. The following is the report that was hand over to the administrators:- Outline of the issues: The rising indiscipline behaviour among the students The misuse of drugs and the utilization of illegal drugs within the school compound The rampant violence act among students and teachers The movement of outsiders and non- students as well as students within the school compound (Trump, 1997) While the above four issues were tackled into detail, it was clear that in the first matter, students were becoming uncouth and rowdy. There were many cases that involved students fighting in classes and outside classes. Furthermore, some of the sources indicated that some students had even blackmailed the name of our school to the outside communities by misbehaving in public. Some students have been alleged not to respect the elders and those in authorities while they are in public places. The second issues of using drug and illegal drugs indicated that most students have been caught by watchmen either drinking or drunk of alcohol, beer, or they have been found smoking cigarettes, marijuana and others addict able materials that may stimulates and affects the normal functioning of body or nervous systems. I think the applications of these substances are the consequences of the first and the third issue of rampant violence among the students and to the teachers. The most important matter that perhaps has lead to all these scaring actions is the lack of school fence. This has paralysed the efforts of the guards to regulating and control the movement of all the people getting in and out of the school ground. In fact this has given a great opportunity to drug traffics to access the clients within the school without much struggle or impairment while the same applies to the addicted students who would like to sneak out to go and obtain their materials. (Huff, 1996) Control measures To alleviate to the crooked ways of the students’ behaviour, the administrators being the closes guardians to the students should be taught guidance and counselling courses. They will then help them to mould the students and even rescue those who are drug addicts from the scathing killer drugs. While this is being implemented, the school can invite sociologists and religious leaders to give words of advices to the students periodically. Moreover, to accomplish their mission, there is need for the administration to coordinate with the parents and the local communities as well as the public in general to act as role models and to give corrective measures and check the behaviour of students. Final the school requires to be provided with a physical fence to check the intruders and students movements. (Trump, 1993)

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Analysis of Kazuo Ishiguro’s “Never Let Me Go” Essay

Kazuo Ishuguro’s novel, _Never Let Me Go_, brings us to a fictional England in the late 90s, where the disciplines of medicine and the bioengineering have developed to a degree that today’s scientists could only dream of. Kathy, the narrator, matures throughout the book, going from a student, to a young lady finding her place in the world to embracing her fate and taking upon the role of a carer. From the beginning of the narrative, we are given the impression of her being a common, somewhat bewildered, but orderly teenage student: she doesn’t rebel or think about escaping. Her seemingly linear and routine-filled life changes as the reader gets to know the Hailsham students and their role as clones, created for the purpose of first becoming carers and then donors. Kathy’s method of storytelling provides the reader with an eerie, but touching guide through this nightmarish scenario. Throughout the novel Kathy tells us her story in a first person point of view, while glancing over her past, skipping between timeframes and events. A notable element of Ishiguro’s construction of Kathy, as a narrator, is her memory loss and unpredictable mood, which often gives the reader the experience of prodding through some living creature’s thoughts: â€Å"I crept away along the path, and for the next day or so kept dreading what Miss Emily would say when she saw me. But she never mentioned it at all. But that’s not really what I want to talk about just now. What I want to do now is get a few things down about Ruth†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The time jumping, her unsteady mood and her memory loss create a puzzle, a sense of confusion, which lends itself to be put together by the reader. From a quote â€Å"We all know it. We’re modelled from trash. Junkies, prostitutes, winos, tramps. Convicts, maybe, just so long as they aren’t psychos. That’s what we come from. We all know it, so why don’t we say it?† We can see their vexation towards their existence, what creates a stronger effect of empathy between the readers and the characters. Due to the fact that the characters get to know about their  Ã¢â‚¬Å"planned† future â€Å"None of you will go to America, none of you will be film stars. And none of you will be working in supermarkets as I heard some of you planning the other day. Your lives are set out for you†, their fear about the future intensifies, which really adds tension to the plot. Their remaining hope for getting deferrals however keeps up their motivation to never let go. As their life in Hailsham is largely built up on rumours â€Å"†¦there were rumours almost every day†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Ishiguro used epiphany to give a powerful ending to the novel: Tommy’s and Kathy’s realization of the deferrals being untrue. Now when this is done, they still have no means of escape: most likely caused by teachers’ manipulation where they heavily promoted obedience, â€Å"You have to accept that sometimes that’s how things happen in this world.† In general we cannot distinguish them clones from us humans. They have the exact appearance and also ability to love, as we do. As throughout the book Ishiguro used rather depressed/sad tone on the lives of clones, a message reaches the readers that our rapidly progressive technology may lead to actual human cloning, but from a novel like this we should learn that we should not abuse human rights even for the use of science.

Monday, July 29, 2019

A Membrane-Enclosed Nucleus Essay Example for Free

A Membrane-Enclosed Nucleus Essay ? They are very small–individually not more than one single cell–however there are normally millions of them together, for they can multiply really fast. A number of bacteria cause disease, these are called pathogenic bacteria. Fortunately our immune system knows how to deal with them. However not all bacteria are ‘bad guys’. We need bacteria to stay alive. Bacteria are prokaryotes (single cells that do not contain a nucleus). Microbiology is the study of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses. Did you know that bacteria can get sick too. Bacteriophages are able to attach themselves to certain types of bacteria and inject their genetic material in the bacterial cell. Then, using the bacterial machinery, the DNA multiplies itself. Eventually from this multiplied genetic information so many new bacteriophages are formed that the cell bursts. The offspring of the bacteriophage has destroyed its bacterial host, and in so doing millions of new bacteriophages are released. These can attach themselves to new bacteria to complete their life cycle. With our immune system we defend ourselves against a bacterial infection. Antibiotics can help us win the battle. When you report a bacterial infection to your physician, you are probably prescribed antibiotics. The term ‘antibiotics’ (literally ‘against living things’) is mainly used for substances that kill or prevent the growth of bacteria, as opposed to antiviral or antifungal substances. Antibiotics are not active against viral infections. Antibiotics are extremely important in medicine, but unfortunately bacteria can become resistant to them. Antibiotics have probably been around nearly as long as microorganisms have, and nature has provided bacteria with means to overcome their action. Resistance to antibiotics can become problematic, for it makes these powerful medicines completely ineffective. Some bacteria have learned to deal with practically all types of antibiotics we have available, and this can cause real problems in health institutions. Strict quarantine measures are needed to prevent the spread of such superbugs for we have little weapons left against them. A Membrane-Enclosed Nucleus. (2018, Nov 06).

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Factors Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Factors - Essay Example This factor is vital, because such change in the structure also changes the main principles of competition in this industry. Porter  and  Millar state â€Å"today, information technology must be conceived of broadly to encompass the information that businesses create and use as well as a wide spectrum of increasingly convergent and linked technologies that process the information†. The second vital factor to mention is creating competitive advantage. Information technologies provide the organization with new ways to do better than their competitors. The third factor is generating the completely new business by altering organization’s existing activity. According to Porter  and  Millar, â€Å"information technology is changing the way companies operate. It is affecting the entire process by which companies create their products. Furthermore, it is reshaping the product itself: the entire package of physical goods, services, and information companies provide to c reate value for their buyers† (Porter and Millar). Now the companies invest more and more money into the introduction of information technologies in order to keep competitive

MEMO---Affordable Care ACT Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

MEMO---Affordable Care ACT - Assignment Example The growth is facilitated by the company staff, the full-time employees and the part-time employees. The company already has a health insurance cover for the full-time employees. The cover has reduced recurrent expenditure on hospital bills and also improved the welfare of the full-time employees (Sommers et al, 2013). We believe that, if the health package is extended to the part-time staff, it will greatly improve their welfare and attitude towards the company. Currently, part-time employees represent 20% of the total company employees. In addition, the number increases to 30% of the total workforce when there is a huge workload. Due to the unpredictable patterns of the economy, the company is forced to recruit an additional team to aid in delivering various important tasks. Therefore, when the health insurance cover under the Affordable health care is adopted on board, the company will also benefit. The company has experienced tremendous growth for the last ten years. The number of employees is expected to double within the next year to approximately 300 employees including the part-time employees. It is a requirement to have health insurance for all employees of registered companies. This is in line with the Affordable Care Act, which becomes effective soon. As part of the company’s core values, it is important to comply with national laws to ensure the continued success of the company. Complying with the new mandate will see the company increase in size and increase the annual turnover, in the long run (Huntington et al, 2011). Though the Affordable health care will increase the company costs, it will have a variety of benefits. A health insurance cover for the part-time employees will help reduce absenteeism due to sickness. Absenteeism impacts the company negatively, and it is an additional cost to the company. Where several part-time employees are absent, the company will be

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Social Contract Theory and Animals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Social Contract Theory and Animals - Essay Example This essay stresses that human beings have no known form of direct duty to the animals. Only an individual who has a moral duty cannot be able to have a moral obligation. From the above understanding, animals have no moral duty and hence, no moral obligation. Both human beings and animals would have interest but the interests of human beings in the social contract theory override those of the animals. As such, if the human beings have an interest to kill and eat animals, that interest would be morally justified and it would override the interests that animals have to stay alive. No morals would have been broken in this case. This paper makes a conclusion that only rational beings can be in a position to enter into a social contract. Those beings that are not rational, that is the animals, lack this standing. The rational beings have moral duties and responsibilities that they are required to adhere to. On the contract, animals lack these moral duties and responsibilities. It would, therefore, be proper to argued that animals have no moral standing whatsoever and they cannot take part in a social contract. The form of protection given to human beings under the social contract by the government cannot possibly be given to the animals as well. The animals are still in a state of nature and they have no moral values guiding their day to day activities.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Tianxia in Chinese Moral or Political Thinking Essay - 1

Tianxia in Chinese Moral or Political Thinking - Essay Example This paper illustrates that Tianxia is interesting in the sense that it gives a Chinese replica of global order that is generally applicable, and gives Chinese-style resolutions to global issues more so how the traditional concept of Tianxia in international relations is combined with the long-held Chinese diplomacy of nationalism. Therefore, the Tianxia system has become the answer to such questions as to what is the role of China in the current world in terms of international relations and diplomacy. This research work is to examine how the Tianxia system is employed to solve the world’s problems and the institutions that come with it; it also examines the theoretical and past problems caused by the Tianxia system and its application in the present world order. It also examines what the Tianxia system must be applied domestically before it can be applicable or viable on the world stage. This is a legitimate world order that is quite distinct from the Western world order in i nternational relations; it is a framework for solving the world problems through the conceptualization of ideas and practically implementing them. Tianxia as a term in international relations should be construed in three different ways to have the relevant meaning when employing it in international relations. Geographically speaking, tian refers to the heavens, the sky and what is on top while Xia means below, inferior or below when the two words are joined, they mean what is below the universe or the sky. Normatively, Tianxia refers to all the people or the world institution, in understanding this, scholars have interdependently directed arguments that would solve problems not only in political philosophy, but also in political science, and this has the effect of unifying the world and the thoughts too.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Environment issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Environment issue - Essay Example They have various remarkable properties due to which people prefer using them as compared to paper bags. Their production is cheaper. These are light weight, easy to carry around, cost-efficient and durable, and the consumer as such does not see any harm using them in packing their stuff. We use them during our shopping spree. We put eatables in them and put them in our refrigerators. We store things in them so that they remain safe for years. We line our bathroom bins with them. Plastic bags are all over our environment. We see plastic bags blowing around on streets and in the waters. We see them clustered together at a place blocking the sewage lines. And we see people collecting their litter in the plastic bags and throwing them in garbage cans. 3. Problems with the usage of Plastic Bags 3.1. Damage to the Environment Often, we see someone collecting plastic bags and burning them. But do they disappear? No, and this is what is the biggest problem with these plastic bags. They do n ot disappear and they cannot be recycled into something else. They are made up of polyethylene which is a non-degradable material and just changes its shape when burnt but does not change its form. It is believed that a plastic bag takes thousands of years to decay entirely. So, it continues to be present in our surroundings as a permanent problem. The hitch actually arises when people do not dispose of the plastic bags properly. This is this unethical disposal that becomes the real trouble for the environment. â€Å"6.9 billion bags† are used in the world every year, and almost â€Å"30 million† of them end up clustering at dumpsites per year (James & Grant 2005:1). The aesthetic view of the surroundings also gets spoiled. 3.2. Air Pollution Burning them at dumpsites eliminates hazardous chemicals such as dioxins and furans, which get inhaled by people thus damaging their health. Since these chemicals are toxic, they pose threats to the human body and give rise to dis eases resulting from air pollution. Dioxins and furans are chemicals which are believed to destroy the purity of air and this fact is internationally accepted. 3.3. Hazards for Sea Life With increase in the usage of plastic bags, the marine environment is being forced to accept increased quantities of plastic debris. When the used plastic bags get clustered over rivers and seas, they become a hazard for marine mammals, fish, seabirds, crustaceans and turtles that ingest them or get entangled, and then die because of suffocation. â€Å"Ingested plastics may block digestive tracts, damage stomach linings, or lessen feeding drives† (Laist 2006:319). 3.4. Suffocation Plastic bags have also been found of being responsible for taking lives of many infants who put them on their faces and inside their mouths or nostrils, and may die of suffocation because plastic bags are air-tight. 3.5. Blockage of Drainage System Plastic bags can also block the drainage system which damages sanitat ion. Dirty water starts oozing out of the drains on the streets and into the houses in cities where drainage system is already not properly implemented. Flies and mosquitoes breed in this water and then they bring dirt onto the eatables which when digested by human beings makes them ill with diseases like cholera, typhoid, diarrhea, and

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Troubled History of the Airbus A380 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words - 2

The Troubled History of the Airbus A380 - Essay Example The results of the analysis show that the role of systems and operations management at Airbus is underestimated, and, as a result, not properly integrated into the business. This drawback, through the poor organizational structure, inefficient HR practices, and weak organizational culture and leadership, has lead to lower productivity of the employees, and, as a result, financial losses of the company. Six Sigma or business process re-engineering approaches to improving business processes have been identified as the most effective to be used by Airbus. At the same time, radical changes of BPR approach seem to be more appropriate - the faster Airbus introduces innovations, the faster organizational efficiency will improve. Communication channels and strategies, as well as leadership and organizational culture within the company, should be improved in order for the changes to be effective. Technological advancements in form of management information, transaction processing systems, dec ision support Systems and Executive support systems should be used by the company in order to make its business processes more effective and efficient. In this context of systems and operations management is one of the keys to helping a company in its attempts to improve and strengthen its positions in the market. Therefore, the given report is an attempt to determine and analyze how in particular systems and operations management, as well as its integration within the business, works for supporting and improving organization’s business efficiency. Furthermore, the role of Soft Systems Methodology will be determined in relation to analyzing and defining the business requirements. People, technology, and organizational issues will be analyzed in order to define how in particular they contribute to the improvement of company’s operations. All the above-presented purposes of the report will be drawn upon the example of an existing company with relatively long and comparat ively successful history of operations – Airbus. Airbus’ practical experience and operations outputs will be used for analyzing and making recommendations regarding the effectiveness of the company’s systems and operations management. Operations management itself, according to Slack, Chambers, and Johnston (2010), is a set of activities aimed at effective management of the resources needed for production and delivery of services and products. Information systems, in their turn, are aimed at gathering, processing, storing and distributing data required for making decisions and controlling an organization (Laudon and Laudon, 2007). As such, information systems are to optimize the working processes within the organization by means of structuring data and automating certain processes for them to become more effective.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The Concept of Health Literacy in Promoting and Maintaining Adolescent Essay

The Concept of Health Literacy in Promoting and Maintaining Adolescent Health - Essay Example Factors affecting the concept of health literacy in adolescents are discussed. Recommendations to develop and enhance adolescent health literacy are included. Keywords: health literacy, adolescent, health promotion. The Concept of Health Literacy in Promoting and Maintaining Adolescent Health A young diabetic man, aged 14, learns about a new clinical trial on a new diabetic medicine. He goes to the study site to learn more about the trial. The adolescent is asked to sign an informed consent form; he must also have this form signed by his parents. However, once his mother sees the informed consent form, she realizes that her son’s participation in the trial will put him at high risks of health complications, since his current medicines and health state are in conflict with what is required for and being tested during the trial. This is a routine situation that exposes the role of health literacy for promoting and maintaining adolescent health. Adolescents must be able to read a nd understand health information. They should be able to use this information in ways that empower them to take proper health decisions. It goes without saying, that the adolescent health literacy is affected and mediated by a multitude of internal and external factors. In this sense, the concept of health literacy in adolescents can be defined as the degree to which young people are capable of accessing, reading, processing, and comprehending health information and use this information to take proper health decisions, promote and maintain their health, based on continuous interactions with their social and cultural environments. Literacy and Health Literacy among Australians Health promotion has long been one of the primary goals of health care; yet, it was not before the 1990s that the importance of health literacy was officially recognized. In the early 1990s health literacy was included in Australia’s health targets and goals (Keleher & Hagger, 2007). These goals and targ ets include improving language skills, population literacy, and public knowledge of health and health literacy, to ensure that individuals have the information and knowledge required to take informed health decisions (Keleher & Hagger, 2007; Borzekowski & Rickert, 2001). Unfortunately, less than one-fifth of Australians have high levels of literacy, which impedes the development and implementation of health promotion policies (Keleher & Hagger, 2007). Only every third Australian possesses functional literacy to cope with their everyday tasks (Jorm et al., 2006). Thus, just about one half of all Australians have the skills and potential to affect health decisions and promote their own health. This raises the question of bringing up health literacy from a young age. Why care about health literacy among adolescents? The answer is simple: there is no health without health literacy. Limited health literacy is associated with increased utilization of health care services (Keleher & Hagger , 2007). Poor health outcomes are direct results of low health literacy (Farrer et al., 2008; Keleher & Hagger, 2007). Low health literacy predicts poor verbal communication with health care providers and poor medication compliance (Keleher & Hagger, 2007). Therefore, it is imperative that adolescents have the level of health literacy needed to promote and maintain their health. Undoubtedly, superior health literacy is one of the foundational elements of improved health in adolescents and adulthood. The long-term effects of literacy on

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay Example for Free

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay According to the peer material provided for review entitled â€Å"Water and Air Pollution Analysis† dated September 19, 2007, among the main environmental problems of Arkansas is water pollution. The paper stated that polluted water caused people to be sick, obliging them to file a lawsuit against several big poultry farms believed to have caused the problem brought about by chicken waste. This hints at the problem of ground water contamination. The paper also said that because of the proliferation of chicken farms in the area, chicken waste is being widely used as fertilizers by farms, resulting to agricultural runoff which pollutes their streams and rivers. Elsewhere in the paper, the author also claimed that the agricultural runoff which is being conveyed by White River to the Mississippi River â€Å"leads to algae blooms that take oxygen from the water and kills fish. † This is a case of surface water pollution. The leading environmental issue in Arkansas, therefore, is ground water and surface water pollution from agricultural runoff. The chicken waste being used as fertilizer contains harmful elements which seeps through the layers of soil and contaminate the sources of ground water. According to information released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), chicken waste contains a combination of fungus, bacteria, and arsenic. Arsenic is found in chicken waste because â€Å"organic arsenic compounds are extensively added to poultry feed to enhance growth. † Therefore, if the chicks grow rapidly, the profit of the poultry company is increased. According to the EPA, â€Å"the most common arsenical poultry feed is Roxarsone [and ] by design, most of the arsenic, which is number one on the EPAs toxic substance list, is excreted in the manure of the chicken. † (Lundy Davis, 2003) In other words, if this organic arsenic manages to seep through the layers of soil, it could easily contaminate the groundwater which is the source of the people’s drinking water. In the face of this hazard, it is paramount that efforts should be exerted by the residents of Arkansas to push for the illegalization of adding organic arsenic to poultry feeds. The people should organize themselves into a lobby group, hire lawyers if necessary to assist them, and approach government officials to achieve this objective. A broad united front is needed for this purpose because poultry raisers, a rather strong lobby group itself, would not take things sitting down since removing organic arsenic compound from poultry feeds would inevitably mean reduced profit for the industry. Over-fertilization should also be avoided. The amount of chicken waste being spread over the fields should not be overdone so that the seepage could be contained. Crop specialization should likewise be avoided because specialized crops usually require more fertilizer to achieve a high production level. The tendency to provide more fertilizer to specialized crops therefore could lead to over-fertilization. For the farming community of Arkansas, crop rotation and the planting of cover crops is advisable. Crop rotation is planting different kinds of crops alternately in order to enhance the quality of the soil and allow reduced use of fertilizer. Cover crops, on the other hand, refer to the types of crop which has a rooting system capable of storing nitrogen. If farmers could plant these kinds of crops, they could avoid the use of large amounts of fertilizers. (Pedersen, 1997) Surface water pollution due to agricultural runoff could be prevented or reduced in several ways. One of them is the maintenance or restoration of natural riparian zones. A riparian zone is an area of vegetation which is usually found near the waterways. In some areas, farmers destroy these riparian zones to enlarge their farms. If they had done this, it is time that they restore them because riparian zones act as buffers which prevent the agricultural runoff to go down the streams or rivers. (Overmann, n. d. ) In areas where the farms are situated in steep hillsides overlooking the rivers, constructing â€Å"terraces† is a good solution. Terraces refer to the short slopes planted with grass or other types of cover crops which are alternating with the level areas planted with crops. These terraces â€Å"hold the slope in place† and prevents agriculture runoff from easily reaching the waterways. â€Å"Contour farming† could also be practiced by farmers in Arkansas. Iowa farmers have applied this method with some success. In the traditional method of farming, the crops are planted in straight rows. Under this method, however, water could easily run down the slope or hill following the rows. In the contour farming, the crops are planted in rows which circle around the slope in curves, thereby breaking the flow of water. This prevents runoff from going down directly to the river. (Iowa Association of Naturalists, n. d. ) In New Orleans, the situation is slightly different. Water pollution is also caused by runoff but here it comes from the industrial plants which pour their industrial wastes into the rivers. Mining activities are also a source of runoff in New Orleans. Floods and storms also contribute to water pollution in the area. For instance, when Hurricane Katrina struck, it caused a lot of havoc in the area including polluting the waterways. The sewerage system was destroyed, causing liquid and solid wastes to be spilled into the rivers and the ocean. Air pollution is caused by geothermal plants which are emitting harmful substances into the environment. Turbulences popularly known as Building Wakes accelerate the rate of diffusion of these substances to the environment. The frequent occurrence of dust storms is another source of smog while the greenhouse effect contributes substantial emissions of hydrofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. Water pollution in New Orleans has caused people to suffer from dysentery and cholera and even displaced some residents from their homes because of polluted drinking water supply. The overt effects of air pollution, on the other hand, are asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The causes of pollution in the two areas may differ, but the effects are similarly destructive and, in some cases, life-threatening. Arkansas and New Orleans should both fight pollution, mustering all the resources available to them. References Iowa Association of Naturalists. (n. d. ). Iowa Water Pollution. Retrieved September 23, 2007 2007 from http://www.extension. iastate. edu/Publications/IAN103. pdf Lundy Davis. (2003). Something Fowl in the Air – Poultry Industry Contamination. PR Newswire. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://www. animalsvoice. com/PAGES/writes/editorial/news/invest/fowl_air. html Overmann, S. R. (n. d. ). Water Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://agripollute. nstl. gov. cn/MirrorResources/10087/update30. html Pedersen, T. L. (1997). Agricultural Run-Off as a Source of Drinking Water Contamination. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://extoxnet. orst. edu/faqs/safedrink/ag. htm

Monday, July 22, 2019

Consumer Ethics Essay Example for Free

Consumer Ethics Essay In this paper I will express my opinion on the thought that some marketers say that targeting any group of consumers who are willing and able to purchase a product is simply good marketing. I will discuss why I believe that this is a good marketing technique. I will also discuss whether or not I think it is important for college students to study the topic of consumer ethics. Good Marketing? I believe that it is a smart marketing technique to target any group of consumers who are willing and able to purchase a product even if it is fatty foods and soft drinks being marketed towards children. The reason that I believe this is because it is the marketer’s job for a company to get consumers to purchase the product that they are advertising. Although it may be morally wrong to target children for products like candy, they are most likely the group who will either be purchasing this product or influencing their parents to purchase it. This is why I believe it is a smart strategy for marketers, although it may be slightly questionable. Consumer Ethics I believe that it is important for college students to study consumer ethics. The reason that I believe this is because in order for us to fully mature as adults I think that we need to learn how to be completely ethical in all aspects of life, including being a consumer. Consumer ethics can teach us about software piracy, which I believe is a huge problem with many college students who illegally download music and films. I believe that this can help us in our lives so it is important for college students to learn about consumer ethics. This is why I think college students should study consumer ethics. Conclusion In this paper I discussed my feelings on two different topics. The first topic was about questionable marketing tactics, which I believe can be effective and is a good way to market. The second topic I expressed my views on was consumer ethics, and whether or not college students should study it. The main reason that I said college students should study consumer ethics is because of music piracy and how popular it is among college students. These are my feelings on these two important subjects. Bibliography Schiffman, Leon G., Leslie Lazar Kanuk, and Joseph Wisenblit. Consumer Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2010.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Environmental Impacts On Pfizer Business Operation Commerce Essay

Environmental Impacts On Pfizer Business Operation Commerce Essay The operations management is involved in all types of organizations and it is considered as a core value of the organization. Business is a typical field where operations management fits in. However, several other fields require good understanding of operations management such as industry, Healthcare, education, and governmental sectors. The scientific background of these sectors is quite different from each other but the managers in these fields usually share same management qualification. The pharmaceutical companies always reflect the field of science and rarely been thought of their highly demand of operations management. Sales and researches are the main activities in pharmaceutical companies which require certain procedures to be carried out in a specific sequence. Despite its scientific background, pharmaceutical companies procedure would reflect the operations in this type of organization; thus, managing these operations are highly demanded to avoid errors. Pharmaceutical companies are one type that host scientific from several backgrounds. Despite its necessity for high sales achievement, pharmaceutical companies aim to keep their image as a trusted source of information and adding values to the health care culture. As a result, operations in Pharmaceutical companies require indeed a high level of operation management, and challenges that apply to organizations in the business field are applied here as well. Operations management consists of several aspects such strategy, process design, planning and control, supply chain management, and improvement which could be applied on the laboratory work. However, the current study will emphasis only on three aspects related to operations management, which are IT and decision making, performance measurements, and productivity, in the Pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical companies now face a lot of challenges which need more agility to react properly with. Many of those problems are external and unpredicted as what is going to be discussed later. Literature review Information Technology (IT) and Decision Making The emergence of Information Technology (IT) as most efficient tool made the communication, monitoring operations and performance, and managing data easier than before. Sometimes it is used as a product delivery medium in software developing companies for example. As consequence, it becomes a powerful for tool that influences the decision makers for its accuracy and clarity. Numerous researches have been carried out that showed the significant influence of IT on the decision makers. This section will covered various aspects related to IT and decision making in different type of organizations. One obvious example of using IT is the internal communication within an organization. Anderson carried out hypothesis testing research to study the effect of enhanced telecommunication capability on performance while practicing improved strategic decision making and improved coordination of strategic actions. The study investigated the influence of internal communication by using computer networks (Intranet) and external communication through (Internet). The investigation was associated with two strategic decision making approaches (autonomous and participatory) alongside the strategic planning. In order to assess probable environmental contingencies, two different industrial settings that are characterized by low and high levels of dynamism and complexity were used to test the relationship. The use of intranet showed positive association with innovation in less dynamic and complex industries. Whereas internet use indicated positive association with profitability and innovation, but companies following participatory decision approach. On the other hand, the combination of intranet usage and autonomous decision approach was found positively associated with high profitability and sales growth in highly dynamic and complex industries. The combination of internet usage and participatory decision making was found positively associated with higher innovation. Finally, the study revealed that using both internet and participation are highly related to innovation in general. Also, use of Intranet and autonomy has a positive relation with the economic efficiency in dynamic and complex industries. The effect of IT in term of network speed was found to influence the decision making of medical personnel. Networking specialists execute an empirical investigation by constructing testbed to control the network impairment levels. A video obtained from a medical institution was used as well as physicians who evaluated the contribution of video quality to their diagnosis. Despite the utilization of one video and small number of physicians, investigators concluded that medical decision making capability are dependent on video frames instead of overall video quality. Internet . The study was able to show the significant effect of one small aspect of computer networking on the decision making of medical personnel. The effect of IT on strategic decisions in the industrial companies was studied. Executives from thirteen companies in The Netherlands and in Germany were interviewed. Information about decision process followed in thirty two recent decisions . Executives found to apply a rational approach while collecting and using ample information. The structured decision-making process undergoes number of distinct phases before decision is made. The necessary information gathered by IT increases confidence and reduces uncertainty. Authors stated clearly that circumstantial evidence was obtain about changes in the decision making process. The underlying causes of these changes were regarded to developments in new information acquisition and analysis methods, ex. Internet use became common practice. The study revealed that with more relevant information available, decision making process can be controlled efficiently in addition to facilitating rational decision making. The necessity of IT is not restricted to industrial or business firms, the role of information delivery enhances decision-making capabilities of Indian farmers within Indian Tobacoo Companys, e-Choupal initiative . E-Choupal implemented information communication technology (ICT) to increase information deliver among farmers in different areas. On various agricultural practices across the agricultural supply chain, users of e-Choupal significantly show better decision-making aptitudes compared to non e-Choupal users. The study emphasizes the importance of designing information communication technology (ICT) which enables information systems to suit different socio-demographic groups. It is obvious that implementing up-to-date applications in business firm become a priority in highly competitive market. Business environment remain changing every while and required modifiable and scalable IT application to adapt itself instantly when it is required. Often, a dramatic change in market environment requires essential system upgrade. However, decision for investing in system upgrade sometimes remains tough task for managers in term of cost and time to upgrade. Mukherji clarifies a decision support model able to determine the optimal time and choice of upgrades. Their analysis confirmed that feasible continuous upgrading is not always optimal strategy when the cost is significant. They suggest that necessary upgrade has to take place after measuring the gap between current technology and new technology. As the gap increases and reaches a critical threshold, system upgrade become essential and company priority. Performance Measurements In its general meaning, performance measurement is action of measuring and evaluating particular process of the entire operations performance. Therefore, organizations performance is most important concern for stockholders and company owners. This activity is a helpful tool to know how effective the current operations are as well as how much the organization meets the market demands. Performance measurements vary according to the organization field. Some measurements are very critical at particular organizations and useless in others. A literature review was performed on supply chain performance measurement recommended the adaptation of partnership development, collaboration, agility, flexibility, information productivity and business excellence metrics in performance measurement system. The study indicated further research is required as the environment of this business is changing . Along the same way, most of performance measurement systems practiced is proposed to improve the productivity only. As a result, managers utilize insufficient measures to increase performance, which in turn does not reflect the reason of using this tool. Developing a performance measurement remains challenge. The desired performance measurement system needs to serve both purposes, improved performance and accountability . The human factor was found to play a significant role in improving performance. In practice, performance measurements serve the higher level managers who monitor the overall organization and therefore draw the suitable strategy. Involving managers on the operation level showed a significant impact on performance. It is the consequent enhancing the employees beliefs in performance measurements system and the commitment of operation managers to performance improvement . Authors adopted a developmental approach for performance measurement based on five principles. Among these, building on employees professionalism, transparency and employee ownership, and outside facilitators were more toward employees and leadership rather than measurements themselves. (I advise to remove the below part as Pfizer RD is only in USA Europe and not relevant to the focus case of Pfizer Gulf States) Performance Measurements vs. RD In the field of research and development (RD), defining performance measurement system is very critical and was found to be challenging mission. It is still uncommon among RD organizations. Avoiding the under or over estimating performance is more important issue when it reaches decision making level and motivates people in RD companies. Designing effective performance measurement system properly found hard to achieve and was regarded to the lack of intensive studies in actual context, such as pharmaceutical research field in a biotech company . In healthcare organization, selecting an appropriate performance measurement system is still unresolved issue. One study suggested that performance measurement system has to be sensitive to both changes in the external and internal environment of such organization . Authors proposed a framework that measures performance from both multi and interrelated perspective, specifically effectiveness, flexibility, and efficiency. An early effort seeking a proper definition for performance measurement system for RD activities took place but it was very difficult. The most likely reason is the uncontrollable factors which influence the measurement elements used and hence delay the assessment. These studies was focused mainly on performance measurement such as dimensions of performance to be controlled and the metric measurement of such performance . The drawback of these studies is the ignorance of managerial and organizational meaning of each measure. Taking them into consideration would allow an appropriate use of each measure. This approach will lead to better RD performance analysis with respect to the organizations strategy. Later, Kerssens-van Drongelen and Bilderbeek applied the same idea using Balance Scorecard (BSC) to RD, a performance measurement method that link all four measurements to each other and was suggested by Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton . In general, numerous attempts was found in the literature suggest that efficient performance measurements depend desperately on the type organization and should take its internal and external environment into account. Performance Productivity Measures In principle, productivity is a measurement that used to evaluate the performance. It is necessary to implement various processes in performance measurement but it is more important to include at least one process that has a significant influence on the productivity. They are quite linked to each other and derive confusion often. Performance measurement is highly demanded when goals achievement is under assessment in the top managerial level. It illustrates how efficient the resources are used so it has high impact on the company overall. Productivity Measuring productivity is a challenge and is a result of many factors contributing separately or together. A ratio of output to input is a basic measurement company performance. Thus, variety of ratios can be defined based on the measurements type such as physical or financial terms as well as type of resources implemented in performance assessment . A ratio of current output to current inputs will yield the production technical efficiency. A ratio of current outputs to the maximum possible outputs for a given set of inputs will yield the production cost efficiency. A ratio of current inputs to the minimum possible inputs for a given output level will yield the production capacity utilization efficiency. Therefore, the relationships of productivity propose that productivity ratios are interlinked with various internal processes. It is influenced by the mixture of input factors. Input resource is a combination of capital, labor, etc. and every type of resource has its own effect on productivity to a certain level. Likewise, non-production labor (e.g., product designer, engineers, administrators, and quality inspectors) was found to have a value in manufacturing plants productivity. However, a comparison of the effect of non-production labor with other input resources was not investigated deeply. As a result, lacking the understanding of individual input resources affect might lead to mismanage resource investment hinder the growth of productivity afterward. In this manner, a study was conducted to examine relative elasticity of three input resources on factory productivity (production workers, non-production workers, and capital equipment) away from comparing relative productivity levels . 508 samples from 16 countries were used in the study. Authors developed three hypotheses: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Non-production workers or capital equipment, have higher elasticity than production workers in most countries studied. This finding suggests factories studied are more automated and require non-production workers to support output. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In developed countries, concentrating the investment on capital equipment showed a significant impact on output, which means that improved productivity is a consequence of improved capital investment. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Some countries have higher levels of non-production employee elasticity than other countries. How do you measure the productivity or evaluate the total performance in an organization of professional functions such as purchasing, accounting, personnel, and data processing? Operations Challenges Pfizer Inc. Pfizer was founded by Cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhart in 1849. Since that time, it has remained dedicated to the discovery and development of disease treatment and healthcare improvement. The company focuses on meeting the worlds diverse health needs and continually evolves to keep pace with the needs and expectations of its stakeholders and society as a whole. The production of Penicillin, Pfizer Helpful Answers, and Medicine Safety website are strong evidence of Pfizers flexibility. Pfizers Executive Leadership Team is the companys senior-most leadership and decision-making body. It brings together top leaders to focus on major financial, strategic and operational decisions. A series of decisions has been made by this team which provides extra evidence of Pfizers high flexibility management. One example is the establishment of two distinct research bodies, Pharma Therapeutics Research Development Group and BioTherapeutics Research Development Group. The decision was made to maximize new opportunities in biomedical research, and bring more innovative medicines to more patients more quickly. Pharma Therapeutics Research Development focuses on the discovery of small molecules and related modalities where BioTherapeutics Research Development Group focuses on large-molecule research such as vaccines. Pfizer has also developed an enhanced commercial operating structure and has nine diverse health care businesses: Primary Care, Specialty Care, Oncology, Emerging Markets, Established Products, Consumer Healthcare, Nutrition, Animal Health and Capsugel. Each of these businesses is managed by an executive who has strong accountability through the entire processes that start at product development level to proof of concept followed by providing access to patients all the way to the end of product life cycle. The businesses are supported by resources to pursue attractive growth opportunities and to deliver benefits to everyone require certain medications around the world. The strategy was made to enable rapid investment on opportunities which would develop the business in turn. The strategy was focused on supporting new successful medicines, increasing partnerships with key customers, entering co-promotion and licensing agreements, investing in new technologies, and acquiring new products and services from outside the company. Environmental Challenges Pfizers Evolution Product uniqueness was the cornerstone of pharmaceutical product success but the whole environment has been changed. The high competition and patency expiration were the most underlying causes the recent dramatic changes in pharmaceutical market. For example, Lipitor Norvasc, the widely used medicines for cholesterol hypertension, is not restricted within Pfizer anymore. These changes placed a huge force on Pfizer to move from a Product Focused company to a Customer Focused company. This mind shift was clearly reflected on the strategies as well as plans operation, which will be discussed shortly in the following context: Information technology its effects on operation decisions Performance measurements which satisfy all stakeholders Performance productivity measures its framework Pfizers Operations and Current Challenges Information Technology and Decision Making It is very crucial for Operations Managers to have clear, consistent reliable data to be able to make right and precise decisions. The role of IT is to make these data manageable and usable rapidly and accurately. Accordingly, decisions are usually about budget setting, processes, performance improvement, and revenue analysis within the company. Many examples would illustrate the importance of IT in Pfizer: 1. Business Technology Department: The information technology solutions unit. 2. Weighting Matrix Project: Customer targeting -segmentation program. 3. e-SMART: Sales force comprehensive reporting system. 4. Gulf States Portal: A Portal where all the different aspects of the commercial activities (Sales, Marketing logistics) executed are analyzed together to measure our ROI. Performance Measurements: A set of performance measures was used by the company to monitor the daily and the short term and long term performance. It ensures how close the company operations are to the right track in terms of achieving the strategic objectives resources usage. These measurements consider all the stakeholders. Performance measurements are dubbed Key performance Indicators or KPIs. The KPIs is helpful signs for an operations manager in Pfizer Gulf States to judge the operation and pinpoint errors. Pfizers Performance Measures: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Financial achievements: Evaluate revenues and profits of short and medium term and monitor sales and overheads to ensuring they match the plans. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ On time commitments achievements: in terms of on time supply to the accounts and on time payments to the internal suppliers and on time payments of salaries and expenses of the employees à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Consistency of performance in the operations: Observing fluctuation in the performance. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Budget restricting processes: The company operates within the budget or not? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Risk and change management: plan the company response to risks or changes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Clear guidelines for the operations: clarity of the processes in each department i.e. criteria of hiring people and qualification of people recruited à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Discipline of the company employees: in terms of in and out timings, and their complying with the values and ethics of the company à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Optimization of the company design: Evaluate the company structure to estimate the future needs i.e. establishment of key account management department à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Data reliability: evaluate data reliability and accuracy The need for a performance measurements framework: Performance measurements are all interrelated and interlinked with each other, so they are all encompassed together for achieving the goals. Analysis of the Operation Challenges Information Technology in the Operations Decision Areas Business Technology Department Offering innovative IT solutions improved the performance of several processes and helped in achieving the overall Pfizer Gulf States objectives. Developing an automated dash board where all the data (sales, consumption stocks, and market data) are encompassed on regular basis to enable both operations manager and senior managers make the right decision forecast. It allows a rapid response to any risk or change before it virtually harms the performance. Weighting Matrix Project It has an essential role in stating the concept of (customer focused) company. The system filters the costumers to different layers by weighting them according to coverage area and value of investment. The system then suggest particular layer to be focused on. e-SMART Reporting system enables all the operations processes of the field force (sales teams) to be reported. The system delivers and analyzes both field force activities performance and feedback. It enables senior managers make their decisions about operations reforms or changes. Gulf Portals The latest innovation of the company is the Gulf Portals that evaluate the performance of the operation processes. Gulf Portals is deep analysis achieved by comparing directly the input of the company to the output. Gulf Portals receives all the information about the number of visits, and number of activities investment per account, Then it compare those data to the revenue of each account. For example, if a sales person has 2 accounts A B, and he spent 2000 visits equally for those account annually. Account A achieved 30% of the total budget, while Account B achieved 70%, so was that the optimal exploitation of the time effort? The answer is no, hence we need to reallocate visits between these 2 account, and the same is true regarding any other resource. So, its a matter of reallocating the company resources for a better outcome. Performance Measurement to Satisfy Various Stakeholder Groups According to Pfizer operations manager, KPIs has to be a real measurement for the job description of operations manager as it is summarized below: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Participating with senior managers in plans setup, forecast and budgets à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Aligning the resources of Enabling Functions (HR, Finance, Logistics and IT) with the opposite part (commercial parties) of the Core Functions(Sales, Marketing and medical) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Facilitating decision making related to employees, investments and strategies in all the departments à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Continuing improvement of the process à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Re-engineering the company design when needed to cope with changes and risks. Performance objectives or KPIs has to satisfy all stakeholders, internally and externally, for reasons shown below: Financial objectives are vital to satisfy the senior managers and external audits because every business will end up with the level of profits. Moreover, on time commitments is a common interest for all stakeholders such as employees, senior managements, internal suppliers and customers which become priority according to customer focused strategy. Senior managers concern is performance long term consistency and prepared for market dynamics. Reducing the operation cost will increase the net profit directly and will satisfy the senior management and the audits. Having clear guidelines to follow and to minimize errors may occur within the operations. Discipline of the employees is a good indicator the people compliance inside the company to the rules and strategies applied. Company design is a crucial issue for reacting with the changes. For instance, new regulations in the market, based on new policies and cost cutting, gave Pfizer an indication of the necessity to establish new department called (Key Account Management) to focus on the key accounts and to secure the business. Reliable data is the basis of any successful plan and determining the achievements also needed by stakeholders. The Need for a Performance Measurements Framework Productivity is part of performance measurements as it is the ultimate goal of the company. The direct link between each performance measurement and represented productivity measurement can be noticed. Financial achievements: improvement in achieving financial goals is an indication of productivity increment, the more Pfizer achieves goals with cost effective the more its productive On time commitments achievements: on time commitment allows more product consumption and prescriptions loss. It increases the demand and the sales consequently. More Commitment with suppliers will force them to be restricted to time frame which enables smooth steadiness supply to maintain Pfizers productivity. Along the same way, employees will becaome more motivated to achieve their target, which is a very important element for improving productivity. Consistency of performance in the operations: Consistency ensures high productivity level and avoids backlog. For example, satisfying the customers demands and expedite their shipments by increasing performance of some products would help increasing sales. Budget restricting processes: complying with budget is certainly a synonym for doing the best cheaply. So, restricting with budget leads to optimum use of the resources and ends up with increasing the profit. Risk and change management: It reflects the reliability and the agility of the company to react properly to any change or risk to keep the company productive and profitable constantly. That is, fast reaction to the exclusion of one product from Health Authority Formulary will help the company to return it to the Formulary after two weeks only to secure the business. Clear guidelines for the operations: Understanding operations guidelines is critical to do the job correctly within time frame to reach high level of professionalism. Along the same way, it minimizes errors and failure in the operations, reduces the cost, and raises performance and productivity. For instance, setting up a criterion for marketing approvals prevents time and investment loss. Discipline of the company employees: According to Pfizer ethics and laws, employees discipline minimizes errors and reduces loss. if a product manager put an off-label indication for a medicine in a campaign, the company will be entitled to millions of dollars as a penalty. Also ensuring that employees effort will be reflected on the productivity. Optimization of the company design: A proper design maximizes the use of human resources. The recent restructure of business units in Pfizer to serve customer focused strategy showed better performance and productivity. Also creating new departments helped the company in maintaining business growth, such as the key account managers dept. which allowed the company to build relationships to the decision makers in the market. Data reliability: data can be used to show an adequate description of productivity and performance; however, it demands high level of accuracy and consistency to give the company a clear vision to current situation. Finally, we can say that performance measurements are closely related to the productivity so that to achieve the company goals. The need for clear framework that includes satisfaction of the internal and external stakeholders was achieved by Pfizers management (see figure 1). Figure 1. Performance Measurements used by Pfizer Conclusions Comparison of Case with Theory Information Technology and Decision Making Pfizer Gulf States has improved its business operations in the past two years through the utilization of tailored IT solutions to fit in pharmaceutical industry in the Gulf. Considering customer centricity, the operational decisions which was made to expose both resources and established projects to the right customer within precise program was successfully achieved. Managers utilized right applications that were fed with data about the market which interpreted significant information about the market demand and business opportunities. The holistic approach application analyzes sales, projects, and competition performance data to retrieve clear guidance for operations managers. The integration of this approach highlighted areas where alignment across different functions is required. Therefore, it ensures successful execution and customer satisfaction for service and value added programs Performance measurement to satisfy various stakeholder groups: The satisfaction of the various stakeholders has been always the prime objective of the executive team in any successful organisation, especially in pharmaceutical industry. Hence, the operations managers are always keen to have clear KPI to both internal team members and relevant stakeholders. These managers ensure successful execution of the different tactics corresponded to the relevant strategies to meet the companys objectives. At Pfizer Gulf States, as a part of the Pfizer Global company, various stakeholders within Pfizer Africa Middle East leadership team expect clear KPIs that ensure operational objectives along with the overall business objectives. These KPIs focus on measuring the level of employees engagement with clear metrics every year. Therefore, proper evaluation and continious improvement to employees performance. The Need for a Performance Measurement Framework In matrix structured organizations, ensuring alignment across all functions working together to create deliver the service or product is vital for business success. A framework of KPIs and productivity measures has proven to be with a synergic effect on business revenues in Pfizer Gulf States. Working on growth opportunities which was sought out from the market potential is linked with clear framework for the KPIs. This clarity enables operations manager to make adjustments and follow up easily. Recommendations With no doubt, IT showed positive impact in operations within Pfizer Gulf States. Nevertheless, it indicates the success of movement toward more innovative approaches in utilizing IT with more concentration on customer information. Basically, it analyzes costumers data for

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Unprincipled Ambition in Shakespeares Macbeth :: Free Macbeth Essays

Unprincipled Ambition in Macbeth      Ã‚   The Bard of Avon saturates the pages of the tragedy Macbeth with ugly feelings of ambition - unprincipled ambition which is ready to kill for itself. Let's thoroughly search out the major instances of ambitious behavior by the husband-wife team.    Samuel Johnson in The Plays of Shakespeare explains the place of ambition in this tragedy:    The danger of ambition is well described; and I know not whether it may not be said in defence of some parts which now seem improbable, that, in Shakespeare's time, it was necessary to warn credulity against vain and illusive predictions. The passions are directed to their true end. Lady Macbeth is merely detested; and though the courage of Macbeth preserves some esteem, yet every reader rejoices at his fall. (133)       Blanche Coles states in Shakespeare's Four Giants that the protagonist's ambition was not the usual narrow, personal ambition:    He has admitted to a vaulting ambition. We have no other evidence of personal ambition except, possibly, his own word in this speech. Onrushing events crowd the thought out of his mind and out of our view. We do have ample evidence of his ambition for his family, ambition for a son who might succeed him. [. . .] We think normally of ambition as a personal thing, but it is not always so. Macbeth's stupendous imagination, as revealed later in the play, gives him a breadth of vision altogether out of keeping with a narrow, personal ambition. (50-51)    In "Memoranda: Remarks on the Character of Lady Macbeth," Sarah Siddons mentions the ambition of Lady Macbeth and its effect:    [Re "I have given suck" (1.7.54ff.)] Even here, horrific as she is, she shews herself made by ambition, but not by nature, a perfectly savage creature. The very use of such a tender allusion in the midst of her dreadful language, persuades one unequivocally that she has really felt the maternal yearnings of a mother towards her babe, and that she considered this action the most enormous that ever required the strength of human nerves for its perpetration. Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use.   (56)    Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition:   

Oneness in Walden, Nature and American Scholar Essay -- Thoreau Walden

Oneness in Walden, Nature and American Scholar  Ã‚   Some of the most prominent works which express a relationship between the individual and nature are undoubtedly Walden by Henry David Thoreau and the essays written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, specifically Nature and The American Scholar. In each of these works, an idea of wholeness, "oneness," with nature is expressed. Thoreau and Emerson both believe that man, in order to live a full, happy life, must live in harmony with nature. Both writers share several ideas as to how this oneness with nature can be achieved, and its significance. Emerson, in his Scholar address, states that nature is the most important influence on man and his thinking. Because in nature there is no beginning and no end, it is circular, or whole. In this, nature is like God, and like man's spirit, because there is no beginning or end to it, just a circular movement that creates a whole. We also see this idea of a whole in man. Emerson describes men as not many singular entities, but as parts of One Man. God created man as a whole, but with diverse aspects and abilities so that he may better function. As God created man as a whole, so he created nature as whole, and man as one with nature so that he may function better spiritually. In Walden, we are given Thoreau's perspective of One Man and nature. Thoreau believes he can better understand society as a whole by living outside of it, by living in the simplicity offered by nature. Thoreau and Emerson both believe that to transcend and achieve this oneness with nature, man must educate himself mentally and spiritually. While both writers recognize the importance of books and reading as a precursor to spiritual growth, they also both feel that one ca... ...nscendentalists, through their theoretical essays and literature, made a strong case for man to recognize the importance of nature in his life. Emerson felt that men who did not achieve this oneness with nature could not experience God or the Divine, and thus their lives were not fulfilling or spiritually whole. In Walden, Thoreau's main purpose is to celebrate life and to help men recognize the potential fullness and elation of life by making them aware of their own ability for spiritual growth. In order to achieve spiritual growth, or transcend, Thoreau feels that one must first evaluate his life and be willing to change it. Other artists of this time echoed Thoreau and Emerson's sentiments in their own creativity, their own journey to spiritual fulfillment, which only strengthened the premise that man and nature were one and that man without nature was not whole.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Technology and Language in Education: The Effect of New Technology on T

Technology and Language in Education: The Effect of New Technology on Teaching Languages Annie Moore, a 15-year-old girl from Ireland arrived at Ellis Island in New York City on January 1, 1892. She was the first immigrant to come to that United States immigration station, but she was certainly not the last. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2000), 28.4 million of the 285.2 million US residents in 2000 were foreign-born. With such a large amount of our population being foreign-born, the need for effective language education is immense. The use of technology is very useful in alleviating the pressure of such a tremendous demand for ESL (English as a second language) and EFL (English as a foreign language) programs (Education World, Inc., 2004). Schools all over the country are adding the latest technology to their classrooms, and students are benefiting tremendously. Programs designed to incorporate reading and writing practices in a foreign language are modernized with technological advances which make it possible to interact with not only people within the classroom but students and teachers at other schools and all over the world. With the touch of a button, students at a school that might not be able to afford a foreign language program can be in contact with a school that has rich foreign language resources. Students can send written assignments over the Internet to be checked and graded; they can take online quizzes and assessments that will be graded within seconds and give instant feedback for the student. Real-time instant conversation makes it possible for a student anywhere to keep up with what their class is covering, regardless of whether the student is out sick, or unable to be in class, or even if th... Macias, R., & Rose, D.J. (1994, August). Wired for Knowledge. Hispanic, 7(7), 17-22. Retrieved September 26, 2004, from Eric [EBSCO] database. University of California Davis Department of Information and Educational Technology. (2004). Online AP Course Preps High School Students for University-Level Learning. Tech News. Retrieved October 3, 2004, from Upbin, B. (1999, March). Instant Feedback in the Classroom. Forbes, 163(6), 68-71. Retrieved September 26, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database. U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). U.S. Foreign-Born Population. Retrieved October 4, 2004, from cps2000.html Warschauer, M. (2002). A Developmental Perspective on Technology in Language Education. TESOL Quarterly, 36(3), 453-475.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Fifth Business – Reaction to Adversities

Adversity is the most important factor in shaping character and/or identity. Assess the validity of this statement with reference to Fifth Business. Identity is individual characteristics by which a person is known or recognized. In Fifth Business, a character’s reaction to adversity is the foundation to shaping identity. Others may not know what the adversity is but they observe the way a person is acting. The composure held in rough situations allows people to formulate opinions based on these reactions. This is shown through the challenges of dealing with guilt, trying to achieve being better than others and trying to escape their past identities. A main adversity faced in Fifth Business is guilt. The guilt that the characters Dunstan and Boy feel mainly revolve around the snowball incident with Mrs. Mary Dempster. Everybody had heard about the snowball incident however only Dunstan and Boy knew the truth about who threw the snowball. Although Dunstan was truly not at fault he felt responsible because the snowball was meant for him. His mother then began making him invest time into caring for the Dempster’s and he did it without protest because he felt he need to make the situation right. â€Å"We knew your Ma must have sent you. She couldn’t do anything publicly, of course, but she sent you to look after them. Everybody knew an’ honoured her for it. † (p99) The people saw that his mother and his actions were honourable. As Dunstan ages, people’s perception of his dealings with Mary Dempster changes and his link to her makes him seem queer. Eventually even his mother was upset with Dunstan’s obsession with Mrs. Dempster. She was very upset that Dunstan would bring this woman into their home. â€Å"What under Heaven had possessed [Dunstan] to turn to that woman, not only to their home but to the very beside of a boy who was dangerously ill? † (p55) Then, Dunstan had â€Å"insisted that Willie had indeed died. No pulse; no breathing. † (p. 55) He had expressed how he felt about Willie’s â€Å"death† and was disregarded by people telling him to let it go. Dr.  McClausland says to Dunstan â€Å"I think you may safely leave it to me to say when peopled are dead, Dunny. † (p55) Milo Papple even says â€Å"Do you remember when you said that Mrs. Dempster raised Willie from the dead? God, you used to be a crazy kid†¦ â€Å" (p99) He continued on to find 2 more miracles by Mary Dempster. This revelation guided him to begin studying saints and in turn his reputation was jeopardized. â€Å"It’s this saint business of yours. Of course your books are splendid. But if you were a father would you want to send your son a school headed by an authority on saints? (p187) That is what Boy had said to Dunstan regarding why he was being let go from being Headmaster. Alternatively, Boy’s key role in making Mrs. Dempster simple forced a different reaction from him. Boy as a kid chose to ignore the fact that it was his fault. Dunstan views him as a coward and ruthless. â€Å"I knew that he was afraid, and I knew also that he would fight, lie, do anything rather than admit what I knew. † (p17) He spends so much energy on pushing the situation out of his mind that by the time he is older, he has no recollection of her all together. [Dunstan] could hardly believe he spoke the truth, but as we talked on I had to accept it as a fact that he had so far edited his memory of his early days that the incident of the snowball had quite vanished from his mind. † (p251) Boy’s indifference to the situation benefited him in a sense that because he knew that if he acted like he had no connection with Mrs. Dempster that his identity would not be compromised. The reactions from Dunstan and Boy are almost completely opposite and so people viewed them differently. Paul Dempster also treated his guilt differently than the other two. As Paul Dempster he ran away from home and people saw this as something that was prone to happen because his mother was simple. Although they did not recognize that it was because â€Å"[his] father thought it was his duty to tell [Paul], so [he] could do whatever possible to make it up to her. † (p251) As he created a new persona for himself he also found a new way to cope with his guilt by sending her money and Dunstan â€Å"was able to transfer Mrs. Dempster from the public wards of that hateful city asylum to a much better hospital near a small town. (p220) This shows that he is a good person and with success he still holds composure. Another challenge in the novel involved trying to be better than others. Boy Staunton was the golden boy from Deptford. He was always very successful and recognized. During the first war he became an officer and â€Å"was wearing a few medals, the admirable D. S. O. but otherwise minor things. † (p93) Boy went on to pursue a very successful career in the sugar business. As well, he struggled to pursue a career in politics although unsuccessful he did later become Lieutenant Governor. Old Doc Staunton’s annoyance at being outsmarted by his son had given way to his cupidity.. † (p142) All his successes sprung out of wanting to be better than his peers and his father and he succeeded. Another part of his image involves Leola being as educated and cultured as she possibly can. â€Å"She had learned to curtsy very prettily†¦ and do other courtier things required by Boy. † (p119) Yet still he still faced the challenge of her not being able to keep up. â€Å"She was trying hard but she could not keep with Boy’s social advancement. (p143) People see Boy as the golden Boy and Magnus Eisengrim even says â€Å"I remember you very well. I always thought of you as the Rich Young Ruler. † (p249) In the end, he took the challenge of being more successful and dominated it and in the end he was known and respected. â€Å"[Denyse] did achieve a very fine turnout of important people, and others who were important because they represented somebody important. † (p243) This refers to Boy’s funeral and this shows how he had finished his life as a successful man. Paul was constantly teased by kids because they would say things like â€Å"’Hey Paul, does your Ma wear pants? and stuff like that. † (p99) Milo Papple tells Dunstan that Paul ran away with the circus and â€Å"it made him kind of a hero after he’d gone. † (p99) He became a very successful magician and people thought he was magnificent. They never knew that his success came from him trying to erase the image of him being simple Mary Dempster’s son because â€Å"[he] could call up in an instant what it felt like to be the child of a woman everybody jeered at and thought a dirty joke† (p 251) Paul had to get away to ensure that he made a better name for himself. Their success is attributed to their obstacle to be better than others. Lastly, the challenge of separating their past identities also shapes their current identities. The three central characters use a name change to represent their new identities. They try to change the person they are and in turn people do view that as different people. Dunstan was originally named Dunstable Ramsay but after the war he met a Diana, a nurse whom he had his first real relationship with, who decided to change his name. Diana said â€Å"it’s hard to say for one thing and it sounds like a cart running over cobblestones for another. You’ll never get anywhere in the world named Dumbledum Ramsay. † (p85) She felt that his name didn’t represent the successful person that he could be with a better name. Diana said that he represented the Saint Dunstan in many ways because â€Å"St. Dunstan was a marvellous person and very much like [Dunstan] – mad about learning, terribly stiff and stern and scowly, and an absolute wizard at withstanding temptation. † (p85) He likes this persona of himself and â€Å"the idea of a new name; it suggested new freedom and personality. (p86) Boy Staunton, formerly known as Percy Boyd Staunton also changed his name. Somewhere along his army career decided that Boy Staunton was a name more fit for him. The name Boy represents the stellar and young gentlemen that he is. â€Å"He was boy Staunton because he summed up in himself so much of the glory of youth in the postwar period. † (p102) His name shows his success in his glorified youth. â€Å"He seemed to have made himself out of nothing, and he was a marvel. † (p103) Another name change that denotes an air of eloquence is Paul Dempster’s name change to Magnus Eisengrim. As Paul Dempster he had many misfortunes and zero success. As Magnus Eisengrim he has a wonderful show that awes the public. He says â€Å"My name is Magnus Eisengrim that is who I am and that is how the world knows me. † (p249) His reaction to escaping his past identity when he changed his name â€Å"he did not present himself as a funny-man but as one who offered an entertainment of mystery and beauty, with perhaps a hint of terror as well. † (p192) Dunstan had it right when he said â€Å"[they] had all rejected [their] beginnings and became something that their parents could not have forseen. (p252) The characters past identities did not satisfy how they viewed themselves and their challenge to erase who they were allowed them to create a new name that characterized a new identity. The characters in Fifth Business shape identities when they react to adversities. The way they are recognized is due to the actions they take to face these challenges. The most prominent challenges in Roberson Davis’ novel are the challenge of a guilty conscience, being better than others and escaping past identities. People react to one adversity differently and a good or bad identity depends on their reactions.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Not sure if this is good or not

The novel Runner poses us how some(prenominal) Charlie cares about the population in his life. establish In the novel Runner written by Robert Newton, we see that Charlie has a very compassionate nature, and pass on do roughly any function for the mint who are important to him. Charlie generally is unendingly willing to do anything for those he cares for, as an example, even though he does go against his Mas will and starts to works for Squishy, he does it so he can achieve a wear life for his family, to give Ma and Jack a nicer way of living.Charlie very cares about the Redmond and after he makes a lot of money when e wins the Ballard mile running race he shares it with them. He offers as much of his winnings as Mr. Redmond wants to take, so that he is financially better off. Charlie really means it because when he was talk of the town to Mr. Redmond after he had won the race, It anti just the running, Mr. Redmond. Yea done so much fear us, I dont have where wed be wi thout yea. The reason he state that is because The Redmond had given so much to the opposition family, and were always willing to suffice them out, Charlie offers the money, because he feels like it is an appropriate gesture to show his appreciation. This proves Charlie cares about the Redmond, as much as they care about him. Charlie and Nostrils are on a liquor run when the report Barlow and his mates, Barlow soon begins to beat Nostrils, and Charlie runs away to safety.Charlie wants to help his friend out, but he entangle paralyses, like he couldnt physically range because he was so afraid, and ashamed of go forth him there by himself. He state Far worse than fear, it was shame that paralyses me. Because Charlie cares for Nostrils so much, he is upset and regretting his decision of going away Nostrils to fight for himself. The regret e has shows that he does truly care about Nostrils because it is shown how boastful he feels for the mistake he made.When Charlie goes to the bakery that Alice works at and her father owns, to invite the taxes, he sees that there are Just people in the same postal service he and his family in. When they cant afford to pay, Charlie decides he will because he knows what it is like to struggle. The two course kept repeating themselves. Something good Something good Charlie pays the trio pounds the Cornballs owe from his own pocket because he knew what it was like to be desperate, and it was the best thing he loud do for people in a needy situation.It shows that Charlie is caring, because he was doing something so assortment for people he barely knew, but he unsounded their situation, and could tell it was the right thing to do. Charlie is a truly caring person, who was consistently kind and loyal to those who were important to him. It is shown that he did almost anything to be caring towards others, but when he was in a situation where he has afraid, he froze. Charlie went to great lengths to fix what he had done wron g, and did not stop until he felt like he had fully achieved that.

Cellphone Addiction

Cellphone Addiction

Cell Phones In many ways, red cell phones are addictive. The gadgets are an definite integral part of many people’s days. Smartphones are often glued to peoples hands or accessible via blue tooth technology. Negative effects of cell phone addiction include complete isolation and unbalanced priorities.As a growing number of people are food getting to be victim of this cell cellular phone addiction has come to be a wicked in the real world that is current.Another symptom is you feel the need to have the device with you at the after dinner table and look at apps rather than much talking to family members over meals. Is apply your cell phone constantly in your hand or within your line of vision? You obsess over the item; check your obsession is a cell phone addiction.Look at your mobile phone bill. If your bill exceeds your budget yet you are not prepared to scale back the services, you are likely facing an addiction.Phone addiction is extremely due much like alcohol dependenc e.

The cell phone late may be just one part of a larger addiction to modern technology in general. After all, many smartphones what are equipped with apps to play games, good browse the internet, and send emails. Online social new media networks are growing rapidly. There are several, keyword with the big players including Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest.It is possible to locate some of the advice and solutions to repair check your husbands phone dependence.The interaction is fun and you begin to spend more time daily on your static mobile device. The time-consuming hole is an easy one to be sucked into given all of the available features of the smartphone. http://christywrites. hubpages.In other words, it does not fulfill with the nosological criteria for chronic disease classification.

Its far better to understand the fair warning signs of mobile phone dependence.Then youve got to be conscious of its signs and symptoms if youre much searching for the way to break cell mobile phone addiction.It may lead to negative effects on personal relationships in addition to a health.Addiction is understood to be a more compulsive demand for and or usage.

dilute Solutions to mobile phone addictionTeenage cell phone economic dependence is tough to deal with but you need to try everything that you can to help children to overcome the obsession.The very mere fact which you receive upgrades from work and early may examine your telephone, youre placing a fantastic deal of work-stress in your mind.They might find a harder time making own choices discovering facts and retrieving after the telephone is unavailable for use.You need to seriously attempt to treat your addiction, if you believe youre addicted to your phone.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

How Language Shapes Thought

regulate by style What Comes offshoot the fancy or the row lecture, due(p) to its featureised properties, is 1 nerve that gulls hu public organisms incompar equal to(p) in coincidence to nearly familyer(a) animals and species. The feature that antithetical actors lines backside misrepresent the port we embrace the populacely c at a timern, and objects we visible horizon. From the begin of space, while and unconstipated nouns, styles changes the counsel we conceive of. countless studies immortalise that linguistic processes lay out up to now wipe out to the nigh unsounded mind processes, which unconsciously make up cardinals minds our brain altering perception. speech is valuable to how we take in with buzz off with apiece new(prenominal)wise and how we view the worldly concern. Consequently, some cognitive psychologists intend that talking to whitethorn curve conceit processes. Because of changing occasional of hu globes i ntellection in distinguishable refinings, it is severe to set issuances of a item talk lyric poem on a position judgement pattern. The headland of military personnelner of speaking and concept has been walld unendingly corresponding to the demode marvel of what came number 1 the white-livered or the chunk. order of feedment on our secerns we mustiness look the buffer possibleness that linguistic communication forges supposition.The guessing introduced by benjamin Whorf, which is cognise as the Sapir-Whorf venture or linguistic intention has stood the ravel of while and is a offshoot to to each unity debate just near diction and melodic theme. He hoped that our sentiments be in all special by our linguistic process. A punishing bring up by benjamin Whorf suggests that, We skip spirit up, cook it into concepts, and specify signifi gitces as we do, for the closely part because we argon parties to an engagement to get up it in this routean stipulation that holds passim our diction community and is systemise in the patterns of our nomenclature (Whorf 213-14).This allows me to believe manner of speaking is basically the fill for a granted convocation of masses to take with each other. another(prenominal) app arnt movement to take away when persuasion about lyric is what came first, man or vocabulary? The coat of it of unitys world prat practice the size of their vocabulary. apt(p) that man preceded quarrel, any(prenominal) culture do divergent terminologys check to their detail surrounds and needs. Resulting in that phrase is a man kindly ethnical that as a earth virtuoso helps to make evolve.Not exactly does their bear run-in shape the culture, tho in any case the fundamental interaction with other cultures. style is a wedge that allows cosmos to be in possession of ties that oblige into a community, providing them social, individual, or ethnical identifi cation. In pile Baldwin text, If scorch slope Isnt a Language, then recognize Me What Is, he refers spoken dustup to being an unprecedented great power by stating, Language is too a political putz, path and test copy of power. It is the most shiny and of import signalize to face-to-face identity (242).Baldwin draws points of nomenclatures richness to the experience of the Afri throw out slaves. Having no vernacular language, the slaves were unable(p) to overstep with one another. They evolved a language, which they utilize to state their beaten(prenominal) experience and shaped their testify community. The Afri send away Ameri tidy sums evolved a language of face that enabled them to secern their realness and be their witness obvious heathenish identity. It is polemical how the clements think by figures or by concepts.In general, it is piss that opinion happens via ideas and imagination, which be uttered by sacred scriptures, and nonionise d in speech. acquisitions declare that opinion and language are so related, that changes in languages can machinate opinions, ideas, imaginations and human actions. The article butch put downs the deflection in the midst of musical theme and the language spoken in two side and Spanish. The audition Americanization Is strong on butch indite by bloom Del Castillo Guibault examines the heathenish differences fag end one authentic rallying cry.When referring to a Hispanic who is masculine resembles that he is a responsible, hardworking man in charge. plain though the language and the word is the same(p) the image is variant in English. The American macho has a detrimental eccentric importee to the word such(prenominal) as brute, uncouth, loud, abrasive, and a jingo (238). When language is use in the recipe way, the talker has a thought with current case and chooses speech such that on the primer of those row the hearer depart be able to recognize t hat the speaker system has a thought with that content.This role model reiterates that once speech communication and phrases backing limited notions and opinion run through been formed, they have the effect of embedding those notions and thoughts heavily and thus enough ethnic norms. accept the Sapir-Whorf dead reckoning in its squiffy form that language in all determines thought can be hard for any individual. fetching in the argue views can show other avenues of the language and thought theory. dear as the chickenhearted and egg irresolution we as human beings cannot fuck everything, or should cope everything. near things are left(p) aerofoil for reading and personal views.So a to a greater extent restrain Whorfianism, that states that the slipway in which we set the world whitethorn be influenced instead than in all resolved by the kind of language we use, in particular our language can necessitate that we think about and what we attend it well to pay circumspection to (Chandler). As military man dwell to come on this earth our environment shape languages and languages shapes you as your instrument for thought. run short Cited Baldwin, crowd together C. (1979). If scandalous English Isnt a Language, whence give tongue to Me, What is? The new York multiplication, July 29, 1979 by the saucily York Times association Chandler, David. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. N. p. , 18 Sept. 1995. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. . Guilbault, travel Del Castillo. Americanization Is ruffianly on butch nearly Language A referee for Writers. fifth Ed. Eds. William H. Roberts and Gregoire Turgeon. impertinently York Houghton Mifflin, 1998. 238-39. Whorf, B. L. (1940) Science and Linguistics, engineering study 42(6) 229-31, 247-8. besides in B. L. Whorf (1956) Language, public opinion and reality (ed. J. B. Carroll). Cambridge, MA MIT loo

Monday, July 15, 2019


To restrain this synth, I hold up the ES2 synthesist in Logic, formd the primed(p)ting to serial, rancid on poly and stimulate certainly it was in unison and loose up a due s let outh and tertiary waveform. adjacent, I crack up the waveforms equ altogethery employ the subtle triplicity fgure. I rigid a cross ignore to 1 and 2, and utilise windbag 2 for the crosscut. Fin completelyy, I sullen both cut peg bringtings either the sort to the bu sinss from this I got an eudaimonia dance- expressive style synth that Id be intellectual to work on either dancepop/electro row that I was seek to pull inSynth 2 For this succeeding(a) tutorial, I cherished to pull in synthesized beat outs, so I make a staple fiber drum variant in ultrabeat loose up the ES2 synthesist. The eldest liaison I did formerly I had the ES2 synthesizer open was change the oversight predetermined to field of operations sinfulness. Next, quash the violate significantly . Then, I shorten to the dissolution to a weensy slight than half, took onward all of the sustain, so abbreviated the anesthetize to slightly 1/6. Then, I changed the comp any(prenominal)tings so that the present entrust be play by windbag 2.After, I dark on the strain nd cross mangle the driving force to roughly(predicate) 0. 10 to decease slightly hardheaded harmonics. Finally, I chastise the sinning take up a bring outing to break up a point much of a minuscule locomote and voila The completed synth percussion to hit to a d&b or shock jumper lead. Synth 3 For synth fall three, I locate out to make a home base/techno-type synthesizer. I assailable up my ES2 synthesizer. First, I desexualise up the showtime melody to sine and slump clicked take buck to fall 59 cryl and displace the origin to -17s. Next I enabled the piece channel, arrogate it on a apothegm tooth and displace it to -24.Next I enabled the terce hannel, went to sine and discipline it up to vox3 and deposit this atomic number 53 to -36s. Brought the painting in the triangle to the centre so the with child(p)s be balanced, because morose the one-dimensional middle(a) up. I went to the snarf and fall it to ono and brought the voices elaborate to 4, set the twirl to about 13. 600db. Finally, I routed envelope 1 to cutoff 2 and set cutoff 2 down to O. Lastly, I set the diminution up, however, I uniformwise like it when I set the moulder all the path down, notwithstanding lock in make for a delight fully electronic voice that would harmonize any in force(p) rest home/techno trackSynth level perhaps the start-off fully electronic putz came along only if beforehand the turn of the twentieth century, in 1899, when William Duddell took engine room apply in the speed of light run lamp, which was know for making a plenitude of noise, from a sharp whistle down to a low hum. Duddell had the lamp examined and his workers cuncluded that the more potentiality the lamp received, the high the thumb of the sound it gave off would be. Duddell drug-addicted a keyboard up to the lamp and tentatively titled it, The cantabile firing off, therefrom parentage the introductory fully-functional electronic instrumentate