Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay Example for Free

Water and Air Pollution Plan Essay According to the peer material provided for review entitled â€Å"Water and Air Pollution Analysis† dated September 19, 2007, among the main environmental problems of Arkansas is water pollution. The paper stated that polluted water caused people to be sick, obliging them to file a lawsuit against several big poultry farms believed to have caused the problem brought about by chicken waste. This hints at the problem of ground water contamination. The paper also said that because of the proliferation of chicken farms in the area, chicken waste is being widely used as fertilizers by farms, resulting to agricultural runoff which pollutes their streams and rivers. Elsewhere in the paper, the author also claimed that the agricultural runoff which is being conveyed by White River to the Mississippi River â€Å"leads to algae blooms that take oxygen from the water and kills fish. † This is a case of surface water pollution. The leading environmental issue in Arkansas, therefore, is ground water and surface water pollution from agricultural runoff. The chicken waste being used as fertilizer contains harmful elements which seeps through the layers of soil and contaminate the sources of ground water. According to information released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), chicken waste contains a combination of fungus, bacteria, and arsenic. Arsenic is found in chicken waste because â€Å"organic arsenic compounds are extensively added to poultry feed to enhance growth. † Therefore, if the chicks grow rapidly, the profit of the poultry company is increased. According to the EPA, â€Å"the most common arsenical poultry feed is Roxarsone [and ] by design, most of the arsenic, which is number one on the EPAs toxic substance list, is excreted in the manure of the chicken. † (Lundy Davis, 2003) In other words, if this organic arsenic manages to seep through the layers of soil, it could easily contaminate the groundwater which is the source of the people’s drinking water. In the face of this hazard, it is paramount that efforts should be exerted by the residents of Arkansas to push for the illegalization of adding organic arsenic to poultry feeds. The people should organize themselves into a lobby group, hire lawyers if necessary to assist them, and approach government officials to achieve this objective. A broad united front is needed for this purpose because poultry raisers, a rather strong lobby group itself, would not take things sitting down since removing organic arsenic compound from poultry feeds would inevitably mean reduced profit for the industry. Over-fertilization should also be avoided. The amount of chicken waste being spread over the fields should not be overdone so that the seepage could be contained. Crop specialization should likewise be avoided because specialized crops usually require more fertilizer to achieve a high production level. The tendency to provide more fertilizer to specialized crops therefore could lead to over-fertilization. For the farming community of Arkansas, crop rotation and the planting of cover crops is advisable. Crop rotation is planting different kinds of crops alternately in order to enhance the quality of the soil and allow reduced use of fertilizer. Cover crops, on the other hand, refer to the types of crop which has a rooting system capable of storing nitrogen. If farmers could plant these kinds of crops, they could avoid the use of large amounts of fertilizers. (Pedersen, 1997) Surface water pollution due to agricultural runoff could be prevented or reduced in several ways. One of them is the maintenance or restoration of natural riparian zones. A riparian zone is an area of vegetation which is usually found near the waterways. In some areas, farmers destroy these riparian zones to enlarge their farms. If they had done this, it is time that they restore them because riparian zones act as buffers which prevent the agricultural runoff to go down the streams or rivers. (Overmann, n. d. ) In areas where the farms are situated in steep hillsides overlooking the rivers, constructing â€Å"terraces† is a good solution. Terraces refer to the short slopes planted with grass or other types of cover crops which are alternating with the level areas planted with crops. These terraces â€Å"hold the slope in place† and prevents agriculture runoff from easily reaching the waterways. â€Å"Contour farming† could also be practiced by farmers in Arkansas. Iowa farmers have applied this method with some success. In the traditional method of farming, the crops are planted in straight rows. Under this method, however, water could easily run down the slope or hill following the rows. In the contour farming, the crops are planted in rows which circle around the slope in curves, thereby breaking the flow of water. This prevents runoff from going down directly to the river. (Iowa Association of Naturalists, n. d. ) In New Orleans, the situation is slightly different. Water pollution is also caused by runoff but here it comes from the industrial plants which pour their industrial wastes into the rivers. Mining activities are also a source of runoff in New Orleans. Floods and storms also contribute to water pollution in the area. For instance, when Hurricane Katrina struck, it caused a lot of havoc in the area including polluting the waterways. The sewerage system was destroyed, causing liquid and solid wastes to be spilled into the rivers and the ocean. Air pollution is caused by geothermal plants which are emitting harmful substances into the environment. Turbulences popularly known as Building Wakes accelerate the rate of diffusion of these substances to the environment. The frequent occurrence of dust storms is another source of smog while the greenhouse effect contributes substantial emissions of hydrofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. Water pollution in New Orleans has caused people to suffer from dysentery and cholera and even displaced some residents from their homes because of polluted drinking water supply. The overt effects of air pollution, on the other hand, are asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The causes of pollution in the two areas may differ, but the effects are similarly destructive and, in some cases, life-threatening. Arkansas and New Orleans should both fight pollution, mustering all the resources available to them. References Iowa Association of Naturalists. (n. d. ). Iowa Water Pollution. Retrieved September 23, 2007 2007 from http://www.extension. iastate. edu/Publications/IAN103. pdf Lundy Davis. (2003). Something Fowl in the Air – Poultry Industry Contamination. PR Newswire. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://www. animalsvoice. com/PAGES/writes/editorial/news/invest/fowl_air. html Overmann, S. R. (n. d. ). Water Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://agripollute. nstl. gov. cn/MirrorResources/10087/update30. html Pedersen, T. L. (1997). Agricultural Run-Off as a Source of Drinking Water Contamination. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://extoxnet. orst. edu/faqs/safedrink/ag. htm

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