Thursday, October 31, 2019

An Investigation into the Impact of Branding on Growth of Tablet Dissertation

An Investigation into the Impact of Branding on Growth of Tablet Computer for the UK Market - Dissertation Example 10 Figure 4: Belief and perception systems in humans 12 Figure 5: Brand archetype triggers and benefits 13 Figure 6: Three dimensions of benefits in positioning technology brands 19 Figure 7: Operating systems of the current tablets in the market. 21 Figure 8: Three important markets for tablet PCs 22 List of Tables Table 1: Branding in technology markets vs. ... 1.2 Background In the information age, two things have invaded into every individual’s life – one is a mobile phone, and the other a PC. Over the decades, the need for diminishing size and increasing mobility of the personal computer; and increasing size and functionality of the mobile has given rise to the birth of Tablet PC. In other words, a tablet PC can be seen as a blend between a mobile phone and a PC that has evolved from consumers’ preference for larger and larger mobile phones and smaller and sleeker laptops. World’s first commercially available Tablet was launched by Apple computers, the iPad in April 2010. This was quickly followed by a host of companies such as the Dell Streak, Samsung Galaxy tab, Blackberry PlayBook, HP Tablet , Asus Eee Pad, Data Ltd. Tablets, JLT Mobile Computers, and Motion Computing Tablets, just to name a few. Some of these target the consumer market, while other target the professional market. The operating system playe d an important role in the proliferation of the tablet PC industry. Irrespective of where it is targeted, one thing is apparent that the tablet PC market has taken the technology market by surprize in terms of growth, product innovation, and marketing innovation. Could it be due to branding? It makes an interesting topic for research into this aberration. A brand, according to the American Marketing Association, is â€Å"a customer experience represented by a collection of images and ideas†¦ Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the accumulation of experiences with the specific product or service, both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Economic Factors That Influence Manager Decision Essay

Economic Factors That Influence Manager Decision - Essay Example As the paper explores it is important to understand that economic factors refer to the changes that take place in cost and prices of commodities, the exchange rates, inflation rate, and interest rates among others. In simple terms, they hamper the ability of an organization to generate profits thus often require to be monitored closely. According to the report findings organizations look at their budgets before setting out to start a project. This is because it will be able to give them an overview of the finances they have to carry out the project. However, there have been instances where organizations did not look at the resources they have due to myopic vision. Most of these leaders were driven by the interests that had been forecast if the project succeeds but did not want to look on the other side of what happens to the organization when the project fails. Take the case of Apple Inc in the 1990s when it was on the brink of bankruptcy because of the decisions that were being made by the management. It forced the board of members to employ back Steve Jobs who had parted ways with the organization. Therefore, this is just but an illustration of the importance of an organization working within its budgets in relation to the resources available. The aim of any business entity is to make profits, and if this does not take place, then there is no need of operating because it will mean that losses will be frequently incurred. This does not mean that the organization forgets there is a need to have a balance between maximization of profits and minimization of costs

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Use Of Green Building Constructions Environmental Sciences Essay

Use Of Green Building Constructions Environmental Sciences Essay India is the Seventh largest country in the world and it has population of 1.24 billion as of 2012 according to World Population Review 2012. As of 2012 India experienced a growth of 5.5% in its Gross Domestic Product (Money Control, 2012). In the same year, the Construction industry Experienced a growth of 6.6%. During the year 2011, construction industry was valued at Rs.18.5 trillion (Reportlinker, 2012). Indian Green Building Council was started on 2001 by Confederation of Indian Industry. The aim of this council is to increase green building construction in India and to make India one of the leaders in green buildings of the world. Benefits from green buildings can be both tangible and intangible . Most important benefit from construction of green buildings are reduction in usage of water and energy costs during the construction of building. The tangible benefits by using green buildings are saving water sources at 30-50% and energy sources by 20-30%. The intangible benefits in construction of green buildings are clear vision of day lighting, health and wellbeing of the occupants, conservation of national resources and enhanced air and marketability of the project (Indian Green Building Council,2008). Indian Green Building Council is a system designed for rating residential buildings which include Gated communities, Residential apartments, Retrofitting of residential buildings with accordance to Indian Green Buildings Council (Indian Green Building Council, 2008). The increased growth in economic activities of any country is causing pressure on environmental and natural resources. There is evidence that an irreversible damage is caused to global environment due to human activities, which have an impact on quality of life for future generations. This concern for environment due to global warming has caused governments to search for sustainable solutions. In India, the real estate industry is the main contributor for global warming due to emission of greenhouse gases released due to energy use from buildings. Hence, there is a necessity for developing sustainable green buildings and technologies in the construction industry. Compared to the world average growth of 5.2% in construction industry, India is growing rapidly with a rate of 10% and also 20% of total electricity is consumed by buildings in India (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). This shows that it is a great opportunity to instigate construction of green buildings or sustainable buildings in the country. In some cases developers have to face a lot of challenges since construction of green buildings will cost a lot for some cases. Green Buildings Development: Sustainable development is often defined as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Brundtland, 1987). Sustainable development is conceptually divided into three types. They are Economic Sustainability, Social Sustainability and Environment Sustainability (John Elkington, 1999). Performance of industrial economy is always been measured by financial outcome. Striking a balance between the above three constituent parts will be a key in achieving sustainable development. In India real estate industry is the major energy consumers and Greenhouse Gas emitters. 38% of global energy is being consumed by real estate industry and almost 3,800 tonnes of greenhouse gas is emitted every year, according to a report done by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change in the year 1996. This report has not included usage of any other resources such as water. Due to increased global warming, depleted sources and consumer pressures had pushed the need for sustainability in construction industry secto r (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). Sustainability in construction industry is not limited to energy conservation also includes resource usage, working conditions and also neighbour surroundings. This situation has given rise to development of sustainable buildings. The green building usually emphasises reduction of environmental impacts on a integrated approach to land, construction strategies and building uses in a sustainable way. Usually a green building uses less amount of energy, natural resources and water when compared to other normal building. By construction of sustainable buildings less amount of construction waste is generated and it also helps in providing healthier environment for people living in it. Green buildings have sustainable features like sufficient use of water, energy and eco-friendly environment, usage of recycled materials, renewable energy, landscapes, effective building and control management systems (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). The benefits of sustainable building usually depend on the extent at which they are used during the planning and design state. A green building will be successful only if it is included starting from the design state. The considerations that are taken into account in design of green building are supply chain starting from material sourcing, recycled resource use, civic amenities, modelling of energy and finally waste disposal for occupiers education. Sustainable Buildings in India: In India, green building movement started with establishment of Indian Green Building Council in 2001, which was started by CII (Confederation of Indian Industries). The first sustainable building was constructed on July 14 2004 at Hyderabad named as CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). In India there are about 18 LEED certified green buildings with an area of about 110 million sq ft by the end of 2007 (CII-Energy Efficiency in Building Design and construction, 2010). In India, the construction industry is considered to be one of the biggest emitter of Greenhouse Gases. 20-25% of consumed electricity by government buildings is being wasted due to incapable design, according to a report submitted by Ministry of power in June 2004. This is the same scenario in private sector. Merits and Cost of Sustainable Buildings In India: The main difference between normal and green buildings are that green buildings have improved indoor environment and also operational savings. The economic advantages of green buildings will not be visible immediately, since the lifetime payback is higher compared to that of normal buildings which mainly come from cost savings, reduced carbon emission and higher capital or rental values. The social advantages are due to increased green buildings in the environment. It also helps in increasing tenants and decrease their health problems due to better working condition. In India, the payback of platinum rated building will range from 5 to 7 years where as gold rated and silver rated building have a period of 3 to 4 years (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). The common notion among Indian developers is that construction of green buildings is costlier when compared to normal buildings and it will take a long time to get payback on sustainable buildings. This reason is due to mainly following: green buildings are still in the stage of developing, not having enough technical information on green buildings, execution of sustainable buildings are still inept, preferring short returns instead of focusing on life term returns (Lang and Meghraj, 2008). Cost Premium of Green buildings in India ranges from 6-18%, it depends on the ratings (Confederation of Indian Industry, 2008). There are green building rating systems which give information about changes, effort by the owners invested on achieving a good performance sustainable building and environmental benefits of the land. The sustainable building rating systems are as follows: BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, used mostly in UK) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, used mostly in US) Green Star (Used mostly in Australia and New Zealand have their own type of Green Star) NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) LEED in India by Indian Green Building Council GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) Cost Analysis of Green buildings: In words of Greg Kats Principal of capital (a consultancy focusing on clean energy), he says that there is big difference between operating cost and capital cost of sustainable building. Why Did I Chose Green Building Constructions and Their Cost Efficiency in India: Most people in India know about Green Buildings, but dont know the procedure how to start and what are the methods to be taken care in starting a sustainable construction. We have lack of information on Sustainable buildings and Government of India must educate people on sustainable buildings. Construction of green buildings started in India recently during the year 2004 until then people where constructing residential buildings, non-residential buildings including government buildings in normal ways. My aim in choosing this topic is to show that even though green buildings are costly but in lifetime they can get their payback and also provide healthy environment to neighbours and occupants. Government should help in providing financial help for constructing sustainable buildings in India.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Only Man I have Ever Loved Essay -- miscellaneous

The Only Man I have Ever Loved Life is a made up of a collection of moments. Some people say that one must learn from obstacles that everyone struggles with. Some people say that every challenge helps to achieve stregth of character and self-growth. Ever since I remember, the most significant change in my life was the loss of my father. Even though it was a very hurtful experience, it helped me to know myself better as a person, realize that I can realize on myself and understand what an inspiration my father was and still is to me. First of all, everything was special and different when my dad was alive. Since he was the one who maintained the family economically, there was nothing to discuss about when he had made a decision. For instance, when I was a teenager, my dad always wanted me to join the art group at school, which was noticeably unpopular among the students at my high school. Since I would do anything to keep my dad happy, I decided to join the art group in spite of my dislike of drawing. At that time I had the idea that I didn't know what I was going to do with my future. I was suppose to go to engineering school just because dad said so. As time evolved, I recognized that I wasn't going to be satisfied working in a field that didn't seem interesting to me. When my father died, I understood that I was the one responsible for building my future, and that was when I actually started to work on what I really enjoy doing: science. By working in that area, I fe...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

After the murder of Duncan Nothing goes Right for Macbeth and his Wife Essay

Shakespeare first showed Macbeth in the court of a newly crowned King James the First. Some people would argue that in places this was written as a piece of flattery for James the first. James was meant to be a descendant of Banquos’ and therefore Shakespeare shows Banquo to be a valiant and heroic character throughout the play. However, Shakespeare had to be careful what he said in the play, as he didn’t want to upset the King. This play could be written as a piece of propaganda or a warning to anybody who went against the King. The play supports the Stuarts doctrine of the â€Å"Divine Right† of kings. This states that kings are appointed by God and therefore going against them is as sinful as going against God himself, the greatest punishment should be put against anybody who does so. This is shown all the way through the play up until the death of Macbeth himself. Macbeth starts the play as a great hero and is well respected by his fellow lords and friends. He has shown himself to be a great warrior and is referred to by some as â€Å"Bellona’s Bridegroom† who helped to save Scotland from invasion by the King of Norway and an attack by MacDonald. Macbeth is highly regarded by the King, who calls Macbeth a â€Å"valiant cousin, worthy gentleman†. Macbeth is rewarded, by the King, the role of Thane of Cawdor after the previous Thane proved to be a traitor and tyrant. However, by the end of the play Macbeth is hated by all and is considered to be a traitor and tyrant. I believe that had Macbeth not have murdered Duncan, he would have carried on his good name and maybe gained the role of King without having to do anything to gain it. We can see that Macbeth starts to suffer from the murder almost directly after when he says that he thinks he hears a voice: Methought I hear a voice cry ‘Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep’, This could be seen as the first part of Macbeths punishment for murdering the king. He has been cursed so that he can no longer sleep because he has murdered the king whilst he sleeps. We can see that this is true because throughout the rest of the play Macbeth does not sleep well again. Macbeth knows now that he will never be forgiven for what he has done and almost immediately regrets his actions and wishes that he could undo it. Macbeth panics after he does the deed and he murders Duncans guards before anyone goes into the room. He thinks that this will be seen as an act of courage and loyalty to the King but doesn’t realise that instead he is getting rid the only other people that could have been blamed for the murder and taken the suspicion away from himself and lady Macbeth. In doing this Macbeth draws suspicion to himself straight away from Macduff who says, â€Å"Wherefore did you so?†. This is the first time we see Macduffs suspicions and they carry on to the very end of the play at which time he goes on to kill Macbeth himself. Macbeth realises Macduff and does not feel safe. Macduff shows the extent of his view of the murder of Duncan by not attending the coronation of Macbeth. Macbeth notices this and his fear grows. After becoming King, Macbeth realises that it does bring him nothing more. He becomes more and more suspicious of Banquo, who is beginning to query Macbeth over the murder of Duncan. Macbeth realises how big of a threat Banquo could be to him and says: To be thus is nothing, But to be safely thus: our fears in Banquo Stick deep. Macbeth is constantly tortured by the witches prophecy of the desendants of Banquo becoming King. If it were true then Macbeth would never built a true dynasty. Macbeth hates this thought and we see it plague him all trough the play. We then see Macbeths change. He orders Banquo and Fleance to be murdered. Yet, unlike the first, his wife is not involved and he hires criminals to do it for him instead of doing the deed himself. This, in my opinion, is the first time we see Macbeth going it alone and leaving lady Macbeth out of his plans. Macbeth believes that by killing Banquo and his son he will be preventing the second prophesy from coming true and put his mind at rest. However, the plan is not completely successful and Fleance escapes. Macbeths reacts to this by saying: Then comes my fit again:I had else been perfect Macbeth is saying that if that had not have gone wrong then it would have been perfect but now it has brought back his unsettlement because if Fleance still lives that means that the prophecy may still come true. His feeling of never having any satisfaction of king returns to him. Macbeth then has a banquet with all his lords and ladies and he gives the game away. He sees the ghost of Banquo sitting in a seat and in his shock and panic he begins to shout out in madness excuses for what he has done. Lady Macbeth tries to cover up for him but Macbeth carries on. The lords become ever more suspicious as begin to understand what Macbeth has done. After the lords have gone Macbeth tells his wife what he done to Banqou and I think this is when Lady Macbeth realises what her husband has turned into and what Kingship has brought him and her. After the feast the lords begin to feel that Macbeth is not a worthy king, referring to the feast as the â€Å"tyrants feast†. Lennox refers to the situation as: ‘our suffering country Under a hand accurs’d’ This means that Scotland is under the rule of a hand (Macbeth) which is unworthy or bad. This tells us that Macbeth is growing more and more unpopular within the lords and he has now lost all of the respect and ‘good name’ that they once gave him. Macbeth begins to fall ever more into despair and goes to see the witches for some more advice. They tell him that he is safe and gives a feeling of security. Macbeth now feels better but the witches then rob him of any happiness by reconfirming Banquos descendants becoming king by showing him an image of kings to come who all look like Banquo. Macbeth is now unhappier than ever and we can see the full extent of which being king has brought absolutely no satisfaction whatsoever. Macbeth, in his despair, says: ‘I am in blood Stepp’d in so far that should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go’er. This shows us a gory view of him wading through all of the blood of his victims and to turn back and try and do right would be as hard or ‘tedious’ as it would be to finish off what he has started and to carry on with the murders. Macbeth has by now lost all of his kindness and any compassion that he once had. His lords are slowly deserting him and his wife and him are further apart than ever. From the beginning of the play Macduff has suspected Macbeth of the murder of Duncan and he now has proof enough to flee to England and join Malcolm. Macbeth has now turned bitter and twisted and vows that he will now do whatever he thinks without thinking about the consequences: ‘From this moment The very firstlings of my heart shall be The firstlings of my hand.’ Macbeth then decides to do his worse deed yet, he orders the murder of Macduffs wife and child. This shows Macbeths lords openly that he is a true tyrant and nothing but a bloody killer. He now loses even more support when Ross leaves him. Not only does he lose support but he also gives Macduff even more reason for revenge and makes Macduff even more eager to overthrow him. Macbeth now realises that he has lost all his support and that he is hated over all the land and is close to despair. By now Macbeth has lost all human feelings that he once had and even when he learns of his wife’s death he simply shrugs it off saying, â€Å"she would have died hereafter†. All feelings of love or hatred or guilty have now been wiped from him and he is now a bitter and lifeless person. He begins to believe that life has no meaning. When Macbeth learns of Macduffs oncoming he is not afraid and says, â€Å"I will not yield†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ lay on Macduff†, he is saying that he will not retreat but instead will wait for Macduff and take him on. Macbeth is not afraid anymore and now just waits for his fate. Macbeth fights to his death and ends up being killed by Macduff in the final confrontation. We can see Lady Macbeths slow spiral of despair throughout the play to the point of suicide. She started off as an ambitious woman who was in love and who wants nothing but the best for husband. She assists in the murder and tries her hardest to make her husband gain Kingship. At the beginning she was in complete control of her husband and the marriage yet by the end she loses all of this and Macbeth pays no attention whatsoever to her. Being queen gives her absolutely no satisfaction and realises that all of the plans were nothing more than a complete waste of time. I believe that after the murder of Duncan nothing goes right for Macbeth and his wife. It eventually pushes Lady Macbeth to suicide and causes the murder of Macbeth himself. I believe that if they had not carried out the murder then Macbeth would have kept his good name and maybe the witches prophesies would have come true without any encouragement. Macbeth had everything and should have been grateful for it. Lady Macbeth became greedy and should have let her husband do what he wanted to instead of pushing him into the initial murder.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Analysis of Labor and Capital Tensions in Erik Larson’s The Devil in the White City

The â€Å"devil† of Erik Larson’s gripping The Devil in the White City is not just the murderer Henry J. Holmes, who serves as the terrifying counterpoint to architect Daniel Hudson Burnham’s efforts to conceive and construct the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair. Instead, Larson explores many different devils that plague Chicago as a whole. Larson paints a portrait of a city besieged by economic and labor struggles, the stress of technological development, a flood of immigration, and crime.Chicago, perched at the end of the Gilded Age, is an American city not only trying to establish an identity, but desperately trying to hold itself together against the ever-widening rift between labor and capital. As presented by Larson, Chicago is a city that exploits this rift, giving rise to a battlefield between the two. Larson comments that â€Å"the thing that entranced me about Chicago in the Gilded Age was the city’s willingness to take on the impossible in the name of civic honor† (393).This â€Å"civic honor† is the heart of The Devil in the White City, revealing a great deal about the city’s nature and determination to carve out an identity for itself. The downside of Chicago’s ambitions to stage a six-month world’s fair, Larson suggests, is that it threatens to undo an already-tenuous social structure. Chicago, however, is full of pride following the Great Fire of 1871. â€Å"They had not merely restored it; they had turned it into the nation’s leader in commerce, manufacturing, and architecture† (Larson 16).Chicago, in the last nineteenth century, barrels forward in the name of progress and is resolved, almost blindly, to come out from under the shadow of New York City. The Devil in the White City, while it follows architect Burnham and murderous doctor Holmes on their antithetical missions, is much more concerned with the American dream. That is, the dream that Larson (as well as many h istorians) feels America has abandoned. Historian Jack Beatty, in his book Age of Betrayal, traces how the dream of â€Å"free soil, free labor, free men and free land† (14) has been traded for the favor of big corporations.During the Gilded Age, Beatty sees an America corrupted from within. The disparity between the rich and the poor has never been greater, he says, with a virtual elimination of the middle class. The dream established by Lincoln during the Civil War is submarined by a partnership between government and business—one that is, at the time, questioned by very few Americans. Chicago is an excellent lens through which to view the fall of the Gilded Age, mainly because of the city’s â€Å"explosive growth† (Larson 23). It is a city that cannot keep up with itself in many ways.As the skyscrapers grew taller and transportation became more effective, Chicago â€Å"also grew dirtier, darker, and more dangerous† (Larson 28), pointing toward t he dark side of progress. There are prices to pay for progress, which forms an ever-present undercurrent of unease in Larson’s depiction of Chicago. Ambition informs Chicago’s â€Å"civic honor† of staging the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. The fair, when completed, would cover over 600 acres of land, complete with new buildings, European architecture, and exhibits from cultures from around the world.Everything about the fair was designed to â€Å"out-Eiffel Eiffel,† referring to the Eiffel Tower, which was introduced at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. This speaks to an overwhelming desire for the world’s immediate recognition of greatness. For example, when plans were being drawn up for the fair’s multitude of exhibits and wonders, the ideas were driven by size and stature. The fair, being America’s first, was steered in the direction of not only being memorable, but so grand of vision as to be intimidating.Im possibly large towers were proposed, even from Gustave Eiffel himself, until George Ferris came up with the idea of a spinning wheel, which would become the first â€Å"Ferris wheel. † The Chicago World’s Fair was a forced reflection of great amount of ingenuity and innovation that occurred during the Gilded Age. Chicago, however, was still beset by the problems of all growing big cities. In fact, the city’s ambitions to compete with New York City brought on unexpected (and unwelcome) parallels:[New York journalist Jacob] Riis had toured Chicago’s foulest districts and announced them worse than anything he had seen in New York. In his talk he noted the fast approach of the exposition and warned his audience, â€Å"You ought to begin house cleaning, so to speak, and get your alleys and streets in better condition; never in our worst season have we had so much filth in New York City† (Larson 212). Through the Gilded Age and Larson’s book, Chic ago constantly struggles to maintain its identity against New York City.In Blair A. Ruble’s insightful book, Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka, Ruble explores the plights of three cities that are the second-largest ones in their countries. Ruble posits that all three cities, near the turn of the twentieth century, were the fastest-growing, most innovative ones. He argues that each city, such as Chicago, faced insurmountable challenges, such as how to manage the growing disparities between the working class and the cultural elite.The ways in which the elite handled each problem, Ruble believes, said something about their fate. In Chicago’s case, Ruble focuses on the rapid expansion of the city against its inability to create an effective transportation system. Chicago was not only flooded with immigrants, but it was markedly overcrowded. It was practically bulging at the seams. Ruble focuses on mayor Carter Henry Harrison, who in Larson’s book was noted for â€Å"establish[ing] Chicago as a place that tolerated human frailty even as it nurtured grand ambition† (213).Ruble credits Harrison for being a true visionary and keenly aware of the problems his city faced. However, Ruble’s notion of â€Å"pragmatic pluralism† plays into his ultimate assessment of Chicago (and Harrison) at the turn of the century. For Ruble, Chicago demanded a leader who understood and applied â€Å"pragmatic pluralism†: a unique (and rare) ability to satisfy everyone’s interests. It is a talent for balancing the interests of the wealthy and the poor, as well as making compromising for the sake of the city’s future development.â€Å"Pragmatic pluralism† speaks to the best, long-run interests of everyone, not the short-term interests of a few. Ruble charges Harrison with doing well at managing certain crises, but losing sight of the goal line. He is portrayed not as a failure, but a victim of economic and social circumstances that befall other cities of rapid expansion and developmental growth. Chicago, just like Moscow and Osaka, failed to deliver on its promises and further reflect the American dream. Chicago’s idealism, Ruble says, had been corroded by a relationship between business and government (213).This tension between labor and capital plays itself out in The Devil in the White City in many fascinating ways. Larson is particularly good in crafting a book that underscores these tensions in both highly dramatic and skillfully subtle ways. First and foremost, he tells twin stories of the fair, focusing on the fair’s architect (Burnham) and the calculating doctor (Holmes)—two stories that run contrary to one another. Larson portrays both of them as brilliant men in their own regards—geniuses at accounting for every detail, anticipating every contingency, and staying one step ahead.Larson’s book l ays out all of the obstacles that stand in the way of Burnham and Holmes’s ambitions. The impossibilities that both men overcome is almost as staggering as the fair itself—a dreamlike world populated with characters as diverse as Buffalo Bill, Thomas Edison, and Frank Lloyd Wright. It is easy to get swept up into the unreality of it all, of which Dora Root wrote â€Å"I should never willingly cease drifting in that dreamland† (Larson 253). This dreamlike quality, echoed by others in the book, is used by Larson to offset the harsh reality of the world beyond it.The fair’s eventual end seems to echo the end of the Gilded Age in many ways—a symbolic shift from the ideal to the real. When columnist Teresa Dean says, â€Å"It seems cruel, cruel, to give us such a vision; to let us dream and drift through heaven for six months, and then to take it out of our lives† (335), one gets the feeling that Larson is using her quote to comment on the collap se of the American dream itself. Labor and capital disappear against the World’s Fair, their tension ceasing to exist in the unreality of it all, but rear their head in another fundamental way.While some could argue that the inclusion of Henry H. Holmes in The Devil in the White City is nothing short of a marketing ploy, Holmes is actually central to the power of Larson’s book. Burnham and Holmes should be viewed as symbols, rather than historical figures: the idealist versus the opportunist, the laborer versus the capitalist. Burnham believes that all things are possible, even when faced with the challenge of staging a fair where â€Å"failure was unthinkable† for fear of the nation’s honor being â€Å"tarnished† (Larson 33). He is a man who believes in himself and those around him.Burnham is the laborer, working to sustain the American dream and keep it alive. He is, quite literally, the architect of America’s future. Holmes, on the other hand, has a completely different agenda. Holmes is the capitalist, looking to exploit weakness and profit for himself: Holmes understood that powerful new forces were acting upon Chicago, causing a nearly miraculous expansion. The city was growing in all available directions, and where it abutted the lake, it grew skyward, sharply increasing the value of land within the Loop. Everywhere helooked he saw evidence of the city’s prosperity. †¦ Holmes knew— everyone knew—that as skyscrapers soared and the stockyards expanded their butchery, the demand for workers would remain high, and that workers and their supervisors would seek to live in the city’s suburbs†¦ (Larson 44-45) As such, Holmes seized upon the idea of the â€Å"World’s Fair Hotel,† which was actually a crematorium and torture palace. He could essentially bend young women to his will, take their money and their trust, and have an endless supply of them visiting his hotel d uring the fair.It is almost an unthinkable series of crimes, especially in Holmes’s ability to evade suspicion, though the Chicago Times-Herald notes that his story â€Å"tends to illustrate the end of the century† (370). This quote informs the entire book and the Gilded Age at once: opportunism and evil masquerading as something benign and trusted. Closely recalling Holmes’s demeanor, the government—entrusted by the people to lead them—sold itself to the corporations. Both Holmes and the government are complicit in failing to deliver the American dream to the people and, instead, employing it for their own gains.The Gilded Age seems remarkably similar to the contemporary world. In fact, many parallels could be drawn between then and now. Presidents and politicians are controlled by the lobbyists and those who have funded their campaigns. The money that has helped put them in office will continue to shape policy and determine our country’s c ourse of action. In light of these realities, Erik Larson’s The Devil in the White City is not just a fascinating piece of history, but it is a cautionary tale that seems more relevant than ever before.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on A Whole New Point of View on Volpone

A Whole New Point of View The lights dim, the audience goes silent, spotlight up, out steps the producer to introduce his play, Coca-Cola’s Craig Kevorkian Presents Volpone. The curtains open up to a completely unfamiliar setting. I, Craig Kevorkian, the Producer, have made a few minor adaptations to the play in order that it might hold the interest of the audience; you see, Jonson’s version was just too boring. The year is 2642 AD; the place is the futuristic city of Venice situated on a space platform orbiting high above the planet of Italy. The characters all have their own little quirks with names to match. Volponex is the man-cyborg as clever as a fox. Moscax is a robot who feeds off of the same energy source as Volponex but assists him in all things. Nanox is a genetically engineered midget alien. Ballsy is a eunuch whose testicles were removed as punishment for his poor rhyming scheme. Pat is an um†¦. uh†¦. well†¦. it’s Pat; there’s not much to say about umm him? Her? Voltorex is a lawyer whose pocketbook is too thick for his own good. Corbacciox X is an older model cyborg and mentor to the newer cyborg Bonariox 3000. Corvinox is a space merchant from the planet Ghoti; and of course there is President and First Beyatch Politicex Oughtn’tex-Beex, visiting from the planet England. As the curtains open upon the play the great cyborg, Volponex, stands in his docking station and beckons his little rolly robot helper (you know the kind, the small kind of pyramidy thing with wheels on the bottom and arms that extend from inside to sweep things up, pull back curtains, pull out chairs and the like, not particularly elegant, but functional. It has a big face painted on the front, with a smiley face.), commands him to display a holographic image showing his stock quotes, savings, and checking accounts. Feeling disatisified with a mere 996 billion denarri credits, he decides to go on a hunt for more money. He a... Free Essays on A Whole New Point of View on Volpone Free Essays on A Whole New Point of View on Volpone A Whole New Point of View The lights dim, the audience goes silent, spotlight up, out steps the producer to introduce his play, Coca-Cola’s Craig Kevorkian Presents Volpone. The curtains open up to a completely unfamiliar setting. I, Craig Kevorkian, the Producer, have made a few minor adaptations to the play in order that it might hold the interest of the audience; you see, Jonson’s version was just too boring. The year is 2642 AD; the place is the futuristic city of Venice situated on a space platform orbiting high above the planet of Italy. The characters all have their own little quirks with names to match. Volponex is the man-cyborg as clever as a fox. Moscax is a robot who feeds off of the same energy source as Volponex but assists him in all things. Nanox is a genetically engineered midget alien. Ballsy is a eunuch whose testicles were removed as punishment for his poor rhyming scheme. Pat is an um†¦. uh†¦. well†¦. it’s Pat; there’s not much to say about umm him? Her? Voltorex is a lawyer whose pocketbook is too thick for his own good. Corbacciox X is an older model cyborg and mentor to the newer cyborg Bonariox 3000. Corvinox is a space merchant from the planet Ghoti; and of course there is President and First Beyatch Politicex Oughtn’tex-Beex, visiting from the planet England. As the curtains open upon the play the great cyborg, Volponex, stands in his docking station and beckons his little rolly robot helper (you know the kind, the small kind of pyramidy thing with wheels on the bottom and arms that extend from inside to sweep things up, pull back curtains, pull out chairs and the like, not particularly elegant, but functional. It has a big face painted on the front, with a smiley face.), commands him to display a holographic image showing his stock quotes, savings, and checking accounts. Feeling disatisified with a mere 996 billion denarri credits, he decides to go on a hunt for more money. He a...

Monday, October 21, 2019

California Architecture for the Casual Traveler

California Architecture for the Casual Traveler California and the long Pacific coast of the Western United States is a territory of changing landscapes and wild diversity- in both lifestyles and architectural styles. California is a land of fire and rain and of tsunamis and drought.  Although from north to south its climate changes dramatically, California has a constant element that affects all building codes- the San Andreas Fault. In the links and resources on this page, you will find simple adobe homes of early Spanish colonists, glitzy homes of Hollywood movie stars, groundbreaking modernist architecture, playful amusement park buildings, wacky googie structures, historic bridges and stadia, and many other interesting and unusual building types. Visiting the San Francisco Area Marin County Civic Center by Frank Lloyd WrightSan Francisco Museum of Modern Art by Mario BottaUnited States Federal Building by Thom MayneCalifornia Academy of Sciences by Renzo PianoThe Golden Gate Bridge Along the Coast of California Historic Monterey Houses in MontereyBixby Bridge in Big SurSea Ranch Chapel in Gualala, by James HubbellHearst Castle in San Simeon, designed by Julia MorganHigh Style Spanish Revival Architecture in Santa Barbara Visiting the Los Angeles Area Los Angeles is an architectural kaleidoscope. As you explore the warm, southern California city, youll find odd contrasts. No matter. The sun of Southern California has attracted odd bedfellows, both in the movie industry and architectural practices. Here is just a taste of LA architecture: Disney Concert Hall by Frank GehryEmerson College Los Angeles by Thom MayneBinoculars Building in Venice by Frank GehryDiamond Ranch High School in Pomona by Thom MayneLA Museum of Contemporary Art by Arata IsozakiCase Study House #8  by Charles and Ray EamesThe Getty Center by Richard MeierEnnis Brown House by Frank Lloyd WrightHollyhock House by Frank Lloyd WrightThe Schindler Chace House by Rudolf SchindlerGeorge D. Sturges House by Frank Lloyd WrightTheme Building at LAXCentral Public Library by Bertram Grosvenor GoodhueCaltrans District 7 Headquarters by Thom Mayne Visiting the Palm Springs Area Within two hours of Hollywood, Palm Springs became the famous getaway for the movie elite. Frank Sinatra, Bob Hope, and other movie stars built homes here in the 1940s and 1950s, the height of Mid-Century Modernism. Richard Neutra, Albert Frey, and others invented what became known as Desert Modernism. Midcentury Modern Architecture in Palm SpringsAlexander Homes: Houses by the Alexander Construction CompanyThe Elvis Honeymoon HideawayThe Annenberg Residence, Sunnylands by A. Quincy Jones in Rancho Mirage Visiting the San Diego Area Balboa Park, site of the influential Panama-California Exposition of 1915.  San Diego architect Irving Gill carried out the Mission Revival and Pueblo styles decided on by the organizers, but it was New Yorker Bertram G. Goodhue who gave the buildings the Spanish Baroque detailing known as Churrigueresque.  Exposition buildings such as Casa de Balboa and Casa del Prado ignited a Spanish Renaissance throughout the American Southwest. Well-Known Sports Venues in California Rose Bowl Stadium in PasadenaLevis Stadium in Santa ClaraLos Angeles Memorial Coliseum Architects of California Many of todays larger architectural firms have multiple offices, which often include California. For example, Richard Meier Partners Architects LLP has an office in Los Angeles. The following list of architects, however, are often associated with beginning their careers in California. They made their mark and settled in California. Julia MorganPaul WilliamsRichard NeutraDonald WexlerFrank GehryCharles and Ray EamesRudolph SchindlerWallace NeffA. Quincy JonesThom MayneBernard MaybeckIrving GillCharles and Henry GreeneCraig EllwoodJoseph Esherick Learn More with these Books Wallace Neff, Architect of Californias Golden Age by Alson Clark, 2000Toward a Simpler Way of Life: The Arts and Crafts Architects of California by Robert Winter, University of California Press, 1997Irving J. Gill: Architect, 1870 - 1936 by Marvin Rand, 2006Five California Architects by Esther McCoy and Randell Makinson, 1975On the Edge of the World: Four Architects in San Francisco at the Turn of the Century by Richard Longstreth, University of California Press, 1998California Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright by David Gebhard, 1997California Modern: The Architecture of Craig Ellwood by Neil Jackson, Princeton Architectural Press, 2002Spanish Colonial Style: Santa Barbara and the Architecture of James Osborne Craig and Mary McLaughlin Craig by Pamela Skewes-Cox and Robert Sweeney, 2015

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Banking Software and Packages in Australia-Samples for Students

Technology has witnessed a number of transformations and advancements in the recent years. There are a number of tools and processes that are based on technology that have been implemented in the past. However, with the changes and transformations in technology, these tools and processes are also required to be upgraded. Such practices have allowed the business sectors to flourish at a rapid rate. One such industry is accounting and finance which has made an advanced use and application of technology and has been home to many transformations. There are a number of online retailers that have established their e merce websites and web applications to offer the services to the clients. Woolworths is one such Australian online retailer that deals in the product categories as groceries and household products. Organization structures make up for an essential part of the organizations. Woolworths has a three-layered architecture which prises of senior management at the top followed by middle level managers and department heads. The members of the operational team are placed at the last layer at the bottom (Woolworths, 2017). Human resources form an extremely important part of every organization. The success and failure of the organization and the projects that are carried out in the organization has a lot of dependence on the human resources. It is therefore required for the organizations to have an adequate culture and structure for enhanced employee satisfaction. There are issues of munication and collaboration that have been witnessed in case of the organizational structure that is followed at Woolworths. There are issues in terms of integration and cohesiveness that have also been observed (Henderson, 2004). In case of Woolworths, the information systems in the areas of accounting and finance can be acquired with the aid of a number of different methods. All of these methods have their respective sets of advantages and drawbacks. The one that fits the best is acquisition of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software (Yang and Tamir, 2015). The current issues with the organizational structure will be avoided with the same (Mallery, 2011). The sales process in the pany is executed in four different stages. The initiation of the sales activities takes place keeping the business goals and objectives at the baseline. Gradually, there are opportunities and agreements that are carried out and explored which leads to the fulfillment of the objectives and results in the customer satisfcation (Gulledge, 2002). Control and monitoring is a necessity for all the activities and operations in all the panies and organizations. In the department of sales, there are issues with control and monitoring that leads to the emergence of a number of frauds and problems (Mohapatra and Patnaik, 2011). There is an i plete validation and verification of the pliance with the best practices that is observed that leads to numerous deviations. The quality of the end-product is therefore adversely affected. Accounting processes were largely paper-based a couple of decades ago. Gradually, there were developments in the technological areas that were carried out which led to the development of the technologies being used in the accounting sector as well (Seethamraju, 2012). Today, there are automated processes and applications that are being used for the execution of accounting activities. These automated systems not only ease out the entire process but also make the processes faster and more accurate in nature (James, 2016). There are numerous vendors and service providers in the market that provide the accounting packages and applications (Afpbb, 2016). There are organizations that are actively making use of such applications which has led to the growth of such vendors to over 10,200. There are over 138,000 resources that work in these organizations and the growth rate of the entire sector is estimated to go up by 8% by the end of this year (Bankwest, 2015). There are many accounting software and applications that are available in the market. One of the integrated solutions that are being used widely is MYOB accounting software that offers the following features and benefits. Intuit QuickBooks is an accounting software package that offers increased levels of system qualities and functionalities that lead to enhanced user experience. It offers the following features and benefits. There are many accounting software and applications that are available in the market. One of the integrated solutions that are being used widely is Saasu accounting software. The package offers flexibility and scalability to the users with the following features and abilities.   Reckon is an accounting software package that offers increased levels of system qualities and functionalities that lead to enhanced user experience. It offers the following features and benefits. Xero is an accounting software package that offers increased levels of system qualities and functionalities that lead to enhanced user experience. It offers the following features and benefits. Software/Package - Intuit QuickBooks $50 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $12 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $15 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $5 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $9 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $99 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $21 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   $180 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   Depends upon the features that are acquired    $70 is the cost that the users will be required to pay to access the software for thirty days   Technology is an element that cannot be missed out or played with in the current times. There are various technological elements that are used in the field of accounts with accounting software and systems as the prime element. These systems include the automated set of features and functions. These shall be included in an organization after an in-depth planning and analysis of the operations and requirements. Advisoryhq , (2015) 5 Best Small Business Accounting Software in Australia. [online] AdvisoryHQ. Available at: https://www.advisoryhq /articles/5-best-small-business-accounting-software-in-australia/ [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Afpbb, (2016) The Australian Accounting Industry. [online] Afpbb.net.au. Available at: https://www.afpbb.net.au/Resources/TheAustralianAccountingIndustry.aspx [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Bankwest, (2015) Accounting Services Industry Report. 1st ed. [ebook] Bankwest. Available at: https://www.bankwest .au/cs/ContentServer%3Fpagename%3DFoundation/CS/Blob/Document%26id%3D1292539844555%26ext%3D.pdf+&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Carey, M. (2015) Cloud Accounting Overview 2015: MYOB Essentials vs Xero vs Intuit QuickBooks Online vs Reckon One - Digital First. [online] Digital First. Available at: https://www.digitalfirst /2015-overview-cloud-accounting-software/ [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Crowder, C. (2016) [online] Techin.oureverydaylife . Available at: https://techin.oureverydaylife /disadvantages-accounting-software-1965.html [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Gulledge, T. (2002). Business process management: public sector implications. Business Process Management Journal, 8(4), pp.364-376. Henderson, L. (2004). Encoding and decoding munication petencies in project management ? an exploratory study. International Journal of Project Management, 22(6), pp.469-476. James, D. (2016) 7 accounting packages for Australian small businesses pared: including MYOB, QuickBooks Online, Reckon, Xero. [online] BIT. Available at: https://www.bit .au/Review/344651,7-accounting-packages-for-australian-small-businesses pared-including-myob-quickbooks-online-reckon-xero.aspx [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Mallery, M. (2011). Project Management Portal (PMP) from the University of Washington Information Technology Wiki - https://wiki.cac.washington.edu/display/pmportal/Project+Management+Portal. Technical Services Quarterly, 28(3), pp.365-367. Miller, K. (2016) Xero Review 2016 | Reviews, Ratings, plaints, parisons. [online] Merchant Maverick. Available at: https://www.merchantmaverick /reviews/xero-review/ [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Mohapatra, S. and Patnaik, A. (2011). Sustainability in HRIS implementation through effective project management. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 3(1), p.78. Myob, (2016) Online Accounting Software for Businesses | MYOB. [online] Myob . Available at: https://www.myob /au/accounting-software pare [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Ryan, E. (2016) The Evolution of Accounting Software: Past, Present and Future|. [online] Gaaaccounting . Available at: https://www.gaaaccounting /the-evolution-of-accounting-software-past-present-and-future/ [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Seethamraju, R. (2012). Business process management: a missing link in business education. Business Process Management Journal, 18(3), pp.532-547. Woolworths, (2017). Woolworths Supermarket - Buy Groceries Online. [online] Woolworths Online. Available at: https://www.woolworths .au/ [Accessed 22 Aug. 2017]. Yang, Y. and Tamir, G. (2015). Offshore software project management: mapping project success factors. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 7(2), p.111.

Friday, October 18, 2019

If industrial robots get cheap enough, they may replace almost all Essay

If industrial robots get cheap enough, they may replace almost all unskilled factory worker in the future. discuss the benefits and costs of this to society - Essay Example There are certain estimations, which indicate that, by year 2025, robots would have taken almost 50 percent of the total jobs in the United States. The impact of industrial robots on employment patterns would vary amongst different industries, and there are reasons to believe that the automotive industry, food services industry and the manufacturing industry would be amongst the ones that would be impacted the most. In these industries, robots would replace as much as 95 percent of the total workers (Skaar & Castillo, pp. 63-64, 2012). These three industries, combined, would replace more than 44 million workers. In fact, calculations also indicate that by the end of 2012, the number of industrial robots, within US alone, would increase to the level of 1.2 million. More importantly, despite the dismissal performance of economy and recessionary pressures, there has been a 20 percent average annual increase in the employment of industrial robots. By the year 2013, there would be one rob ot worker for every 6000 people living on this planet and there are reasons to believe that, within a few decades, the world would have more robots that people (Briggle, et al., pp. 104-106, 2011). Proponents of replacing human workers with robots believe that this would mark a new era in improving the quality of living of people. Life on this planet would become more comfortable, and industries would be able to reduce their costs, drastically, thus allowing consumers as well as industries to gain from the savings (Skaar & Castillo, pp. 63-64, 2012). On the other hand, proponents of these ideas believe that it will only increase the problems in developing and third world countries of the world, which are plagued, already, by problems of high inflation, poverty, and unemployment. In many of these countries, a significant chunk of people is employed in the manufacturing sector, performing

Short Answer Questions Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Short Answer Questions - Coursework Example An example of a landscape radically transformed for economic reasons is the Mississippi River – Gulf Outlet Canal. This canal was constructed on the river for the transportation of goods into the interior of the United States of America from the harbor. In the long run, humans do not benefit from such environmental changes since the construction of this canal has resulted in storm surge amplification and wetland erosion. Severe weather conditions such as those witnessed during Hurricane Katrina lead to massive loss of life and property (Jones, 2010). The social functions of kinship in traditional non-state societies may be considered unsociable and dangerously selfish because it involves dividing duties based on ones gender. This is unsociable because boys and girls will not socialize when performing their social functions and will not know how to act in each other’s company. For example in marriage the woman has the role of taking care of the children, while the father protects the family from physical harm. This is dangerous since it portrays the woman as a weaker sex. The man in society is also considered the head of the family; this means that the opinion of the woman shall not be taken into consideration. In certain religions, women are not allowed to perform certain rituals and this leaves them spiritually unfulfilled. An example of soft power is the several fast-food franchises exported to Asia and Europe such as McDonalds. This has changed the manner in which people eat whereby people prefer French fries and fried chicken. The social media in the internet has influenced the political world in the Middle East. This is evident through the â€Å"Arab Spring† that liberated several Middle Eastern countries from tyranny. Such influence turns into propaganda when these freedoms encouraged are meant to bring a nation to its knees through civil war (Jones,

The First Continental Congress Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The First Continental Congress - Research Paper Example Each colony sent representatives to the Congress except Georgia which did not want to jeopardize the aid of British troops which were needed in that colony to help fend off Indian attacks. These representatives were not of one mind, however. The historically significant meeting of 54 men which included George Washington, John Adams and Patrick Henry were divided in purpose. Some delegates such as John Adam’s cousin Samuel Adams favored democratizing the colonies though were not yet suggesting forming their own country, at least not publically. Others insisted resolving the issues with Britain were the only sensible way and the meeting’s only intention. The convening of the First Continental Congress was meant to unite the colonies and gain the attention of the Mother Country and in that, its goal was accomplished. The colonists had considered themselves British citizens for the approximately century and a half they had been in America and likely would have continued thi s loyalty to country if the British Parliament and King George III had not restricted trade, increased taxation and permitted Colonies seats in House of Commons. Britain and France were engaged in costly battles both in Europe and America. Desperate to raise funds to pay back debts caused by continued military endeavors, Britain passed the Sugar Act on April 5, 1774 which not only levied a tax on American sugar but prohibited the importation of rum and French wine. The Stamp Act followed the next year requiring stamps to be purchased to sell many common products such as newspapers and playing cards. Stamps are still required today on liquor and cigarettes. Britain justified the tax claiming it was to pay for the protection provided its soldiers to protect citizens from Indian raids, a reason that did fell on deaf ears. Since 1770 the majority of colonists had been against British soldiers occupying America. On March 5th of that year tensions between soldiers and citizens reached its peak when soldiers fired shots into a taunting mob throwing ice-balls and sharp oyster shells at them. The event is popularly known as the Boston Massacre, an incident that might have escalated into all-out war at that time if not for John Adams. He successfully defended the British soldiers against a backdrop of a mob-mentality existing in Boston and spreading through Massachusetts along with the other colonies. (â€Å"American Revolution,† (2012). Following the Boston Massacre, Parliament abolished the Townshend tax which ended the taxes on just about everything except tea which led to another historical event. In December, 1773, colonists disguised as Indians boarded several English ships anchored in Boston Harbor. They tossed 342containers of tea into the sea to protest the tax and British occupation. George Washington, a member of the Virginia House, was concerned this overreaction to a three pence tax would cause the British, known for their ruthless tactics, to retali ate. Samuel Adams, leader of the Sons of Liberty, was â€Å"convinced that the tea duty had to be stopped at all costs and that their symbolic action had aroused America from its slumber.† (Chorlton, 2011 p. 34). Unlike Washington, they were happy because it forced American colonists to take sides. In May of 1774, Parliament passed the Massachusetts Government Act which nullified the Colony’s Charter and made town meetings illegal. The Administration of Justice Act soon followed. It allowed for British

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Organizational Structure of the Business Research Paper

The Organizational Structure of the Business - Research Paper Example The involvement of operational staff in a budget setting will facilitate the budgetary control system and will eliminate variances. The operating staff well knows about the operating costs and thus should be involved in the budget setting. Involving staff in the budget set is not considered comfortable as it can cause a clash between departments but it can be quite helpful in smoother running operations. Budgets, which are kept secretive and made by the manager often, fail to implement. The staff often reacts severely against such budgets. It can lead to a feeling of mistrust and frustration. It can lead to misdirection and waste of resources. True integration is lacked in budgets in which staff is not involved. Ambiguous financial data should be converted into meaningful information. Operational staff must be educated about the budget and then involved in decision-making. The budget sets guidelines available for each segment. Controlling aspect of budget means to keep in check the c ontrollable costs with budgeted costs. The responsibility for cost control is assigned to the manager of the cost department who is responsible for controlling the cost under his control. For controlling the cost accountant must use standard values. This involves creating inventory values for costing and controlling physical quantities and choosing such alternatives, which might increase revenue and decrease costs. It involves executing such budgets for operating under expected competitive and economic conditions. The budget should be set within an overall organizational planning and control framework.

Social and Economic Inequality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Social and Economic Inequality - Essay Example People might ask why does this type of inequality exist in the society or what are the reasons behind its existence. Some might say that it is because of the technological advancements whereas some might point towards the rate of unemployment all around the world. Technology has advanced a lot in these past years which has lead to the replacement of man with machines. This in turn has lead to the rise in the number of jobless people in the society. There are people who are willing to work at minimal wages just to earn what little they can (Reich 406). Another problem that can be contributed to the increasing income inequality is the availability of overseas workers who can accomplish tasks with the same level of perfection and yet ask for minimal salary in return. This shift of job placements from developed nations to developing nations also increase the gap between the upper class and the lower class employees who are now forced to work at a pay which is far less than what they actu ally deserve. The government is also considered selfish in this regard because they have attracted all the big booming industries by reducing taxes but little do they realize that these companies will soon be converted into completely automated industries which will require very little man power and hence the number of jobless people will continue to rise in the coming years but the government is more concerned about the productivity and the profit that they gain rather than the amount of unemployment that they will have as a result of this.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The First Continental Congress Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The First Continental Congress - Research Paper Example Each colony sent representatives to the Congress except Georgia which did not want to jeopardize the aid of British troops which were needed in that colony to help fend off Indian attacks. These representatives were not of one mind, however. The historically significant meeting of 54 men which included George Washington, John Adams and Patrick Henry were divided in purpose. Some delegates such as John Adam’s cousin Samuel Adams favored democratizing the colonies though were not yet suggesting forming their own country, at least not publically. Others insisted resolving the issues with Britain were the only sensible way and the meeting’s only intention. The convening of the First Continental Congress was meant to unite the colonies and gain the attention of the Mother Country and in that, its goal was accomplished. The colonists had considered themselves British citizens for the approximately century and a half they had been in America and likely would have continued thi s loyalty to country if the British Parliament and King George III had not restricted trade, increased taxation and permitted Colonies seats in House of Commons. Britain and France were engaged in costly battles both in Europe and America. Desperate to raise funds to pay back debts caused by continued military endeavors, Britain passed the Sugar Act on April 5, 1774 which not only levied a tax on American sugar but prohibited the importation of rum and French wine. The Stamp Act followed the next year requiring stamps to be purchased to sell many common products such as newspapers and playing cards. Stamps are still required today on liquor and cigarettes. Britain justified the tax claiming it was to pay for the protection provided its soldiers to protect citizens from Indian raids, a reason that did fell on deaf ears. Since 1770 the majority of colonists had been against British soldiers occupying America. On March 5th of that year tensions between soldiers and citizens reached its peak when soldiers fired shots into a taunting mob throwing ice-balls and sharp oyster shells at them. The event is popularly known as the Boston Massacre, an incident that might have escalated into all-out war at that time if not for John Adams. He successfully defended the British soldiers against a backdrop of a mob-mentality existing in Boston and spreading through Massachusetts along with the other colonies. (â€Å"American Revolution,† (2012). Following the Boston Massacre, Parliament abolished the Townshend tax which ended the taxes on just about everything except tea which led to another historical event. In December, 1773, colonists disguised as Indians boarded several English ships anchored in Boston Harbor. They tossed 342containers of tea into the sea to protest the tax and British occupation. George Washington, a member of the Virginia House, was concerned this overreaction to a three pence tax would cause the British, known for their ruthless tactics, to retali ate. Samuel Adams, leader of the Sons of Liberty, was â€Å"convinced that the tea duty had to be stopped at all costs and that their symbolic action had aroused America from its slumber.† (Chorlton, 2011 p. 34). Unlike Washington, they were happy because it forced American colonists to take sides. In May of 1774, Parliament passed the Massachusetts Government Act which nullified the Colony’s Charter and made town meetings illegal. The Administration of Justice Act soon followed. It allowed for British

Social and Economic Inequality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Social and Economic Inequality - Essay Example People might ask why does this type of inequality exist in the society or what are the reasons behind its existence. Some might say that it is because of the technological advancements whereas some might point towards the rate of unemployment all around the world. Technology has advanced a lot in these past years which has lead to the replacement of man with machines. This in turn has lead to the rise in the number of jobless people in the society. There are people who are willing to work at minimal wages just to earn what little they can (Reich 406). Another problem that can be contributed to the increasing income inequality is the availability of overseas workers who can accomplish tasks with the same level of perfection and yet ask for minimal salary in return. This shift of job placements from developed nations to developing nations also increase the gap between the upper class and the lower class employees who are now forced to work at a pay which is far less than what they actu ally deserve. The government is also considered selfish in this regard because they have attracted all the big booming industries by reducing taxes but little do they realize that these companies will soon be converted into completely automated industries which will require very little man power and hence the number of jobless people will continue to rise in the coming years but the government is more concerned about the productivity and the profit that they gain rather than the amount of unemployment that they will have as a result of this.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Claytronics Case Essay Example for Free

Claytronics Case Essay Claytronics is an emerging field of engineering concerning reconfigurable nanoscale robots designed to form much larger scale machines or mechanisms. Also known as programmable matter, the catoms will be sub-millimeter computers that will eventually have the ability to move around, communicate with each others, change color, and electrostatically connect to other catoms to form different shapes. The forms made up of catoms could morph into nearly any object, even replicas of human beings for virtual meetings. . Likely spherical in shape, a catom would have no moving parts. Rather, it would be covered with electromagnets to attach itself to other catoms; it would move by using the electromagnets to roll itself over other catoms. The catoms surfaces would have light-emitting diodes to allow them to change color and photo cells to sense light, allowing the collective robot to see. Each would contain a fairly powerful, Pentium-class computer . According to Carnegie Mellons Synthetic Reality Project personnel, claytronics are described as An ensemble of material that contains sufficient localcomputation, actuation, storage, energy, sensing, and communication which can be programmed to form interesting dynamic shapes and configurations. The idea is not to transport objects nor is it to recreate an objects chemicalcomposition, but rather to create a physical artefact,that will mimic the shape, movement, visual appearance,sound, and tactile qualities of the original object INTRODUCTION: Programmable matter one day could transform itself into all kinds of look-alikes The day when doctors routinely made house calls may be past, but that doesnt mean that someday you wont routinely see your doctor in your home with emphasis on see. That is to say, your doctor could physically work out of her office. But a three-dimensional lookalike, assembled from perhaps a billion tiny, BB-like robots, could be her stand-in in your home. She could talk with you, touch you, look at you, all under the control of the real, if distant, doc. After the examination, she could be disassembled, leaving behind a big pile of beads. Or the beads might reassemble into a piece of moving sculpture, or turn into a chair. Not a single such robot yet exists; building the one-millimeter diameter robots that Goldstein envisions is beyond current technology. And he acknowledges it could be decades before a synthetic doctor is possible, much less affordable.But its not too soon to start thinking about it. Its a little like putting a man on the moon, said Todd Mowry.Its not just a problem of building tiny robots, but figuring out how to power them, to get them to stick together and to coordinate and control millions or billions of them. No ones even sure what to call it. Claytronics, synthetic reality and programmable matter have been proposed. Dynamic physical rendering is the label Intel uses. Each of the individual robots comprising these people or shapes would be a claytronic atom, or catom. Likely spherical in shape, a catom would have no moving parts. Rather, it would be covered with electromagnets to attach itself to other catoms; it would move by using the electromagnets to roll itself over other catoms. *The catoms surfaces would have light-emitting diodes to allow them to change color and photo cells to sense light, allowing the collective robot to see. Each would contain a fairly powerful, Pentium-class computer. CLAYTRONICS, A SYNTHETIC REALITY [pic][pic] The big advantage of designing on a computer is the ease of changing things, like color and shape. But, especially for 3D objects, it has some disadvantages. You don’t really get a feel for the object: What does it look like when I walk around it? How does it feel when I hold it in my hands? With Claytronics technology this problem could be solved. What is Claytronics? Claytronics is an emerging field of engineering concerning reconfigurable nanoscale robots (claytronic atoms, or catoms) which can interact with each other to form tangible 3-D objects that a user can interact with.They are designed to form much larger scale machines or mechanisms. Also known as programmable matter, the catoms will be sub-millimeter computers that will eventually have the ability to move around, communicate with each others, change color, and electrostatically connect to other catoms to form different shapes. The forms made up of catoms could morph into nearly any object, even replicas of human beings for virtual meetings. Claytronics technology is currently being researched by Professor Seth Goldstein and Professor Todd C. Mowry at Carnegie Mellon University, which is where the term was coined. . The Carnegie Mellon University together with Intel are currently researching this technology. Though it might seem somewhat futuristic, they are confident that it can be realized and they’ve got Moore’s Law( describes a long-term trend in the history of computing hardware, in which the number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years) to back it up. According to Carnegie Mellons Synthetic Reality Project personnel, claytronics are described as An ensemble of material that contains sufficient local computation, actuation, storage, energy, sensing, and communication which can be programmed to form interesting dynamic shapes and configurations. Claytronics has the potential to greatly affect many areas of daily life, such as telecommunication, human-computer interfaces, and entertainment In other words, programmable matter will allow us to take a (big) step beyond virtual reality, to synthetic reality, an environment in which all the objects in a user’s environment are physically realized. Note that the idea is not to transport objects nor is it to recreate an objects chemical composition, but rather to create a physical artefact that will mimic the shape, movement, visual appearance,sound, and tactile qualities of the original object Claytronics though based upon on concepts of physics and electronics in schoolbooks (and a neat trick), its a technology of 2040 and 2050 due to the technical challenge scientific and engineering community live with. Challenge is to develop and control this material on the scale of nanometers (100 times thinner then human hair, 1 nanometer = 10 -9 meters). Claytronics doesnt end with working together philosophy or networked computing alone. Catoms, basic blocks of claytronics can morph their physical and chemical properties, meaning same material can be of different mechanical, thermal properties, can have different shape or size, different color, fluorescent material can be converted to super reflecting mirror. These highlights and long wait till Year 2040/50. . Our goal is that the system be usable now and scalablefor the future. Thus, the guiding design principle,behind both the hardware and the software, is SCALABILITY.Hardware mechanisms need to scale towards micronsized catoms and million-catom ensembles. Software mechanisms need to be scale invariant. Claytronics will be a test-bed for solving some of the most challenging problems we face today: how to build complex, massively distributed dynamic systems. It is also a step towards truly integrating computers into our lives—by having them integrated into the very artifactsaround us and allowing them to interact with the world. Catoms Programmable matter consists of a collection of individual components, which we call claytronic atoms or catoms. Catoms can †¢ move in three dimensions in relation to other catoms, †¢ adhere to other catoms to main ­tain a 3D shape, communicate with other catoms in an ensemble, and compute state information with possible assistance from other catoms in the ensemble. Each catom is a unit with a CPU, a network device, a single-pixel display, one or more sensors, a means of locomotion, and a mechanism for adhering to other catoms. Although this sounds like a microrobot, we believe that imple ­menting a completely autonomous microrobot is unnecessarily complex. Instead, we take a cue from cellular reconfigurable robotics research to simplify the individual robot modules so that they are easier to manufacture using high-volume methods. Ensemble principle: Realizing this vision requires new ways of thinking about massive num ­bers of cooperating millimeter-scale units. Most importantly, it demands simplifying and redesigning the soft ­ware and hardware used in each catom to reduce complexity and manufactur ­ing cost and increase robustness and reliability. For example, each catom must work cooperatively with others in the ensemble to move, communi ­cate, and obtain power. Consequently, our designs strictly adhere to the ensemble principle: A robot module should include only enough functionality to contribute to the ensemble’s desired functionality. Three early results of our research each highlight a key aspect of the ensemble principle: easy manufacturability, powering million-robot ensem ­bles, and surface contour control with ­out global motion planning. High-Volume Manufacturability Some catom designs will be easier to produce in mass quantity than others. Our present exploration into the design space investigates modules without moving parts, which we see as an inter ­mediate stage to designing catoms suit ­able for high-volume manufacturing. In our present macroscale (44-mm diameter), cylindrical prototypes, shown in Figure 1, each catom is equipped with 24 electromagnets arranged in a pair of stacked rings. To move, a pair of catoms must ï ¬ rst be in contact with another pair. Then, they must appropriately energize the next set of magnets along each of their circumferences. . The current prototypes can only overcome the frictional forces opposing their own horizontal movement, but downscaling will improve the force budget substantially. The resulting force from two similarly energized magnet coils varies roughly with the inverse cube of distance, whereas the ï ¬â€šux due to a given coil varies with the square of the scale factor. Hence, the potential force generated between two catoms varies linearly with scale. Meanwhile, mass varies with the cube of scale. Powering Microbot Ensembles:. Some energy requirements, such as effort to move versus gravity, scale with size. Others, such as communi ­cation and computation, don’t. As microrobots (catoms) are scaled down, the onboard battery’s weight and volume exceed those of the robots themselves. To provide sufï ¬ cient energy to each catom without incurring such a weight and volume penalty, we’re developing methods for routing energy from an external source to all catoms in an ensemble. For example, an ensemble could tap an environmental power source, such as a special table with pos ­itive and negative electrodes, and route that power internally using catom-to ­catom connections. To simplify manufacturing and accelerate movement, we believe it’s necessary to avoid using intercatom connectors that can carry both supply and ground via separate conductors within the connector assembly. Such complex connectors can signiï ¬ cantly increase reconï ¬ guration time. For example, in previously con ­structed modular robotic systems such as the Palo Alto Research Center’s PolyBot and the Dartmouth Robotics Lab’s Molecule it can take tens of seconds or even minutes for a robot module to uncouple from its neighbor, move to another module, and couple with that newly proximal module. In contrast, our present unary-con ­nector-based prototypes can â€Å"dock† in less than 100 ms because no special connector alignment procedure is required. This speed advantage isn’t free, however: A genderless unary con ­nector imposes additional operational complexity in that each catom must obtain a connection to supply from one neighbor and to ground from a dif ­ferent neighbor. Several members of the Claytronic team have recently developed power distribution algorithms that satisfy these criteria. These algorithms require no knowledge of the ensemble conï ¬ g ­uration—lattice spacing, ensemble size, or shape—or power-supply loca ­tion. Further, they require no on-catom power storage. Shape Control Without Global Motion Planning: Classical approaches to creating an arbitrary shape from a group of mod ­ular robots involve motion planning through high-dimensional search or gradient descent methods. However, in the case of a million-robot ensemble, global search is unlikely to be tractable. Even if a method could globally plan for the entire ensemble, the communi ­cations overhead required to transmit individualized directions to each mod ­ule would be very high. In addition, a global plan would break down in the face of individual unit failure. To address these concerns, we’re developing algorithms that can control shape without requiring extensive planning or communication. This approach focuses on the motion of holes rather than that of robots per se. Given a uniform hexag ­onal-packed plane of catoms, a hole is a circular void due to the absence of seven catoms. Such a seven-catom hole can migrate through the ensemble by appropriate local motion of the adja ­cent catoms. Holes migrate through the ensemble as if moving on a frictionless plane, and bounce back at the ensemble’s edges. Just as bouncing gas molecules exert pressure at the edges of a balloon, bouncing holes interact frequently with each edge of the ensemble without the need for global control. As Figure 2 illustrates, edges can contract by con ­suming a hole or expand by creating a hole, purely under local control. We initiate shape formation by â€Å"ï ¬ ll ­ing† the ensemble with holes. Each hole receives an independent, random veloc ­ity and begins to move around. A shape goal speciï ¬ es the amount each edge region must either contract or expand to match a desired target shape. A hole that hits a contracting edge is consumed. In effect, the empty space that constitutes the hole moves to the outside of the ensemble, pulling in the surface at that location. Similarly, expanding edges create holes and inject them into the ensemble, pushing its contour out in the c orresponding local region. [pic] Importantly, all edge contouring and hole motion can be accomplished using local rules, and the overall shape of an ensemble can be programmed purely by communicating with the catoms at the edges. Hence, we use probabilistic methods to achieve a deterministic result. Our initial analyses of the cor ­responding 3D case suggest surface contour control will be possible via a similar algorithm. Ping-Pong to marble size A large, moving shape such as a human replica might contain a billion catoms. A system with a billion computer nodes, he added, is something on the scale of the entire Internet. . . . Unlike the real Internet, our thing is moving. This will require new schemes for quickly organizing and reorganizing such a large computer network. A moving shape will necessarily force catoms to constantly and quickly change positions, breaking connections with one set of catoms and establishing new connections with others. The idea behind self-reconfigurable robots is that a robot could change shape depending on a task perhaps operating as a snake-like robot to wiggle through tight spaces, while taking the form of a spider or a humanoid for other types of exploration. Identifying each catom by a number, like each computer on the Internet, isnt likely to work. Rather, catoms may identify themselves based on function or position a catom replicating a human would need to know if it was part of a pinky finger, or a mouth, or an eye. Power also has been a concern. As we shrink thingswe find that weight and bulk is primarily in the battery.The idea is to eliminate the battery. Instead, the catoms will automatically form themselves into electrical circuits, so delivering power to one catom effectively delivers power to all of the catoms. As the shape moves and the catoms rearrange themselves, connections will be repeatedly made and broken, interupting power. So the catoms will be designed with a capacitor or small battery to hold just enough charge to compensate for the momentary disconnections. The system also will be engineered to maintain its shape even when powered off. proposes covering the sides of the catoms with manmade fibers similar to the microscopic foot hairs of the gecko, a tropical lizard.The millions of hairs on a geckos toes allow it to cling to almost any surface. The hairs arent sticky, but rely on weak electrodynamic forces known as the van der Waals force. If the synthetic hairs can be fashioned out of the microscopic fibers known as carbon nanotubes, the hairs could conduct electricity and might serve as the electrical connections between catoms.. Even if claytronics doesnt immediately yield 3-D motion, it might be useful for producing 3-D shapes in the computer-aided design process, Goldstein said. Claytronics antennas could change shape to improve reception of different radio frequencies. A Claytronics cell phone might grow a full-size keyboard, or expand its video display as needed. [pic] The Concept and the trick Catoms, of which claytronics machines will built upon are kind of rich quantum dot. Quantum dot is basically a semiconducting crystal (material used in ICs for almost any electronic or computing device) on a nanoscale, so we can call it semiconducting nanocrystal. Quantum dots unlike normal semiconducting crystal caters to single or more electrons on a scale small enough that they can be called as artificial atoms without their own nucleus. To make this understand better Quantum dots controls can control almost single electron in its own territory. These territories have different levels, in scientific term called discrete energy levels on the order of De-Broglies wavelength. Trick is really simple in theory; every substance on a atomic level is identified based upon its atomic number and atomic mass number. Atom has three basic atomic particles (no of basic particles discovered is high as of now) electron, proton and neutron. In a balanced atom no of electrons and protons are same, so no of electrons indicates atomic number as well. Here in Quantum dots we can manipulate no of electrons trapped by adjusting the voltage to the metal. Creating lots of such artificial atoms in metal like semiconductor can alter lots of its chemical and electronic properties to make a non transparent metal behave like a transparent mirror maybe. A Modular Robotic System Using Magnetic Force Effectors One of the primary impediments to building ensembles of modular robots is the complexity and number of mechanical mechanisms used to construct the individual modules. As part of the Claytronics project—which aims to build very large ensembles of modular robots— investigation is done on how to simplify each module by eliminating moving parts and reducing the number of mechanical mechanisms on each robot by using force-at-a-distance actuators. Additionally, also investigating the feasibility of using these unary actuators to improve docking performance, implement intermodule adhesion, power transfer, communication, and sensing. Three magnetic 45mm planar catoms. I. Introduction Advances in manufacturing and electronics open up new possibilities for designing modular robotic systems. As the robots become smaller, it becomes possible to use force-at-adistance actuators—e.g., actuators which cause one module to move relative to another via magnetic or electric fields external to the modules themselves. Furthermore, as the cost and power consumption of electronics continue to decrease, it becomes increasingly attractive to use complex electronics rather than complex mechanical systems. In this paper, we explore how a single device that exploits magnetic forces can be harnessed to unify actuation, adhesion, power transfer, communication, and sensing. By combining a single coil with the appropriate electronics we can simplify the robot— reducing both its weigt and size—while increasing its capabilities. Furthermore ,since we are interested in the ensemble as a whole, we do not require that individual units be self-sufficientAs long as individual units can contribute to the overall motion of the ensemble, they do not need the ability to move independently within the greater environment. We call this design principle the ensemble axiom: each unit contains only the minimum abilities necessary to contribute to the aggregate functionality of the ensemble. Choosing the right mechanism for locomotion is a key design decision. In addition to scalability, the size of the unit must also be taken into account. At the macroscale,complex mechanisms such as motors are effective. However, as units scale down in size other approaches become viable, taking advantage of increasing surface-to-volume ratio and decreasing of inertial moments. Our current robots, which we call planar catoms1, are small enough that we can explore a mechanism designed around magnetic field forceat- a-distance actuators. As the units decrease further in size, actuators based upon electric field forces become viable and are appealing because they use less current, produce less heat, and weigh less than magnetic actuators. Even smaller units could harness surface forces such as surface tension or Van der Waals’ forces. The size scale also affects power transfer and storage: because electrical resistance increases as contact size decreases, direct electrical connections between robots become increasingly impractical. II. Related Work Of the many research efforts the most relevant to our work is Fracta Fracta is a two dimensional modular robot which uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnets for locomotion and adhesion. As in our planar catoms, to move a module requires communication between the moving module and its neighbors. The two main differences between Fracta and planar catoms are due to changes in underlying technology and the use of permanent magnets. Fracta modules are constrained to be in a hex-lattice whereas the planar catoms have additional actuators and can be arranged in a cubic or hex lattice. Significant advances in VLSI enable us to create smaller, lighter units which do not use permanent magnets. We also harness the magnets for more than locomotion and adhesion, i.e., the magnets also serve as the main mechanism for power transfer, sensing, and communications. Planar catoms are our first step along the path towards realizing three dimensional claytronics. The robots rely on the external forces and move stochastically, adhering to each other under control of the program running on the robot. The ensemble principle is carried even further in the latter project; robots are unpowered until they adhere to a powered robot.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Role Of Professional And Managerial Skills Management Essay

Role Of Professional And Managerial Skills Management Essay Management can be defined as manage all organisational function that are sales, finance and marketing, etc. Management can be decision what to do and then perform through their stuff. And a manager can be explaining as someone who is responsible for the management of whole organization. He has also power to move stuff to do things. Armstrong M. (1999) That means a manager main task to lead the whole team in an organisation. Manager is attention to deal with their stuff and all kinds of customers. Manager has responsible to communicate with people, team builders, innovation and supervision of stuff and successfully develop every project within dead line. The main managerial skill concerned with planning of every project in organisation, direction of the work, allocation of responsibility, controlling, implementing, monitoring and evaluation, etc. Javed (2009) Here identify some professional and managerial skill or experience in following areas: Communicating with other people The great deal of manager and most of the time he spent to communication with internal and external all people and stuff. For communication of other people or stuff or customer, first need to influence of those people, listening and asking question, writing report and presentation skill. For influence people by manager there are many basic influencing skill are available. The most common influencing method is attracting people by given ideas that are conveying the managerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s enthusiasm. For this reason people feel to taking part of this project. Another method that are observing and listening of other people what they want to say. Try to draw the plan in other peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s point of view. And at the same time join own view with their. And another common method is asserting that means explain the views in direct ways, clearly and always assertive statement. Swinton Another communication method is report writing in logical structure where reader can find sequence of section in every view and continuing in from introduction to conclusion. In this report should be included from introduction, the analysis, the diagnosis and beneficial recommendation and then planning for action and at last conclusion with executive summery. This report should be written in plain word in familiar word without any ambiguity that can be readers can easily understand. For communication it needs to be better presentation. For good presentation, there are techniques are available that are first need to collect information, then decision what need to say. Then need making structure of the speech. And it also remember of the timing of the speech, no more time taking that are look like boring. And at last deliver the presentation with pace and in conversational way. Team work / Team Building For successfully develop any project in every organisation in need to a sound team group. To build a group, this is responsible for managerial body. It is need to first identify the group behaviour that means who are work together for a specific project. And also determine the functions that are carrying by team member. There are many major function accomplish by team member that are decision making, information collecting, action taking action and summarizing the work , setting of standardization and work together with co-operatively. For develop or building a team group there must be follow some stages that are first need to create forming of the group. By forming it can be realize the dependence on the manager or leader. And also understand the acceptable behaviour from the team member. Then need to storming, norming for increase the cooperation and at last performing the problem for solved. Control Controlling means monitoring and measuring the performance, always compare that work are running according to the plan and also taking action if necessary. Barnett . And control means compare the planning and actual performance. For good control of team group it needs to take plan with aims and objectives, monitoring regularly and take activity for reached to the correct destination. Time management Time management means controlling the most valuable resource of company that means good scheduling of time for compilation of the project. By proper timing management, it can be possible effective project planning. Timing management can remove wastage of time, good preparation for any meeting with other people, approaching plan with effectively in every moment. It can also help to allocate all kind of resources especially form time. Time management is most important for long term project schedule. Blair Some time poor time management is the cause of failure of the project by over confidence. Managerial skill in Motivation Motivating for his stuff is the basic responsibility of a manager. Without motivating properly, it is nothing would be created. For motivating of employee is more challenging work for a manger. In motivation, there are include recognition, work achievement and all over responsibility for employee. Flexibility By using flexibility, it can be assured how and when project will be done. It can give the overall effectiveness of the project. In flexibility there are include schedule flexibility, flexible place and work cooperation and careers flexibility. Supervision Supervision means monitoring the day to day operation and maintenance for project improvement that are related in administration and management of the faculty. Here also prioritized for provide training in stuff if necessary or co ordination of the stuff. Always need to monitoring requirements of the stuff and review work flow that means its progresses. Innovation Innovation leads to the commercial idea of the manager that is important requirements for successful development of project. There are mainly two role of the innovation of the manager that are operational innovation for specifies the area of company and chief innovation to secure the resources of the company. Meeting deadline A successful project depend on its objectives, complete in target date and target budget with maintain standard strategy. That are deadline is the part of every project. Co-ordinating Co-ordinating means the task are carried by the stuff and mesh together for to achieve the project goal. Co-ordination need because individual work needs to be synchronized. And this synchronization is done by the managers that need to be skill and experiences. In co-ordination it involves planning, organising, monitoring and communicating. Managerial Effectiveness A management style always is proactive or supportive for every stuff and customer. And reactive behaviour of a manager cannot expect. Management style are very from one organization to another organization McCrimmon(2007) In old management style Manager does not want to share his knowledge with other stuff. He thinks that he only knows everything. All innovation conducted through the manager, and does not like the team work All controlling power is conducted from manager. That his main job is control the other stuff. In new management style Planning and deciding all projects effectively. An effective management style always tries to prioritising that means classifying the significance of the work. Organising the whole task that are synchronisation the work. Delegating other people when he have not enough time Co-ordination is also controls from manager that are individual action are sequenced properly. To identify the managerial effectiveness it needs to be understood the skill or behaviour and project result. The measurement of effectiveness and performance therefore compare expectations about achievement and behaviour with actual results and behaviour. Analysis the managerial effectiveness The ability to acquire the successful result is called managerial effectiveness that means ability of the leaders. To find the result effectively, here describe the manager skill and experience that he apply for achieve desired result. To make a effective manager, need to combining of technology, stuff, and proper skill and experienced to make proper model of a leadership. In proper skill means technical skill in specialized training of a unique task include skill stuff to motivate and delegate roles to solve problem quickly and communicate properly with all other team member. And an effective manager also has knowledge about conceptual skill that means understand the every components of the company that how they are work together. He has ability to visualize a future course of action based on present company. Also have a concept about the interrelationship of the company among different stuff. Heller (1998) As an example of managerial effective can be say that a project of marketing spearheaded. In this project, a financial manager can be better understood the result then the marketing manager. So it is need to specific choice for overall performance of the company. Managerial effectiveness also creates the product competition against rival company and increase opportunities for future enterprise. Attitude, value and behaviour of change agent A change agent is someone who supports the change that are undertaking. But also need to understand the detailed operation, process, system and people in a specific are that the change will be implemented. Newton (2007) The attitude, value and behaviour of a change agent are reflect are describe at the below: Change agent can understand the difference between the request state and present state. Beer (2003) Agent can be understand, how can operate an organization. The starting point for change is really how the organization operates and to know how process actually work. Only individual with direct and current experience of the process can provide this understanding. Change agent has ability to develop team group and can be synchronize together customer and create effective working team group. They also communicate with the outside of organization to maintaining appropriate network skill. They can handle all uncertain environments and can tolerant of ambiguity. Change agent has strong communication skill to communicate with other team member to reach the project goal. They have strong interpersonal skill that means listening to others problem, information collection, and selection idea and arrange meeting. Evaluation of an effective change agent Change agents are look like leaders who conduct the company and its team group without regarding the conventional hierarchy. Sometimes this change agent is free from their daily routine task for maintaining soundly leading of the company and driving change. They develop new procedure for train the stuff and act as main role model for better ways to work. Change agent spends their half of time in a project to advising manager that how to improve performance, auditing progressing and look up areas that are undergoing in change. For evaluating of an effective change agent, it needs to articulate the change. Change agents are accepted by others as trustworthy and competent and try to motivate people to change. Find out who people listen to and change agent lead with the power of their ideas, but this may be not be stuff with other formal authority to lead. Take close look at new employees who have come from outside the circle of traditional competitors. They may not be infected with the same mind- set as everyone else.